ALL the subjects handled in this volume may be studied from the orthodox and Roman point of view in The Catholic Encyclopedia, now publishing in eighteen volumes at New York.

The Cambridge Modern History, especially on the Renaissance, Reformation, and French Revolution, covers the ground from about 1450.

Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome, extends from the fourth to the sixteenth century.
The Papal registers are in course of publication from the period of Avignon.

For the prelude: consult
Barry, Papal Monarchy ;
Bryce, Holy Roman Empire ;
Duchesne, First Period of the Papal States (Fr.);
Luchaire, Innocent III (Fr.).

For Avignon and Renaissance:
Pastor, History of the Popes, ten volumes (E. Tr.), is indispensable.
Creighton, same title and period;
Milman, Latin Christianity, VII. -XI;
Symonds, Renaissance, picturesque but unreliable;
Hefele, Councils, for Constance and Basle;
Höfler, Popes of Avignon (Ger.);
Valois, France and the Great Schism (Fr.);
Gardner E. G., St. Catherine of Siena ;
Kitts E. J., In the Days of the Councils and Pope John XXIII.;
Gairdner J., The Lollards ;
Voigt, Revival of Classical Antiquity (Ger.);
Müntz, Art and the Papal Court (Fr.);
Burckhardt or Geiger on art and literature of the Renaissance (E. Tr.);
Vaughan H. M., Medici Popes ;
Brosch, Julius II (Ger.);
Roscoe, Leo X., still valuable;
"Kraus on Popes and Culture" in Cambridge History, II.;
Lea, Inquisition in the Middle Ages ;
Lilly W. S., Renaissance Types, Erasmus, etc., Froude on the same subject, inaccurate.
Gregorovius, Lucrezia Borgia ;
Villari, Machiavelli and Savonarola (E. Tr.); Lucas, Savonarola.

For the Reformation period:
Ranke, History of Popes, sixteenth and seventeenth century, with Macaulay's classic review;
Janssens, History of the German People (E. Tr.), standard work;
Lea, Inquisition in Spain ;
Lord Acton, History of Freedom, Historical Essays and Studies, Lectures on Modern History :
all deserving careful attention, and dealing with Persecution, Temporal Power, Democracy;

Denifle and Grisar on Luther and Lutheranism (Ger.), gives strong Catholic view;
Döllinger, Reformation, an early work;
Contributions to History, sixteenth and seventeenth century (Ger.), after 1870;
Möhler, Symbolism (E. Tr.) standard work on Protestant Formularies;
Gasquet, Henry VIII. and Monasticism, and Eve of Reformation ;
Bridgett, Lives of More and Fisher ;
Gairdner J., the English Church in the Sixteenth Century ;
Sanders, Origin of the Anglican Schism (E. Tr.);
Thompson F., Life of St. Ignatius of Loyola ;
Barry, "Calvin", in the Catholic Encyclopædia ;
Baird, History of the Rise of the Huguenots ;
Law, Catholic Tractates of Sixteenth Century ;
Maurenbrecher, on Charles V.; Maximilian II., Catholic Reform in Germany, etc. (all Ger.),
of great importance; see also Möller (Lutheran), Church History III. on the same subjects.

The Jesuits and the Catholic Counter-Reformation
There is no general history of the Jesuits in English. The French by Crétineau Joly has many faults.
The Society published its own in six portions and in Latin, down to 1620; it is printing its Monumenta in various languages, 1894 onwards.
Pallavicini and Theiner give History of the Council of Trent.
See also Ward A. W., "The Counter-Reformation", in Episodes of Church History.

For Gallicanism and its affinities:
St. Beuve, Port Royal (Fr.) is the best literary account of Jansenism.
Bossuet, Defence of the Declaration of 1682 (Lat.), in his works;
Fleury, Church History and new minor works (opuscules, Fr.);
Jervis, History of the Gallican Church, very learned;
Michaud, Louis XIV. and Innocent XI. (Fr.);
De Maistre, " Du Pape " and L'Eglise Gallicane, the most famous treatment of whole question;
Hergenröther, the Catholic Church and Christian State,
E. Tr. by Devas, documentary and polemical, best modern work on the Encyclical and Syllabus of 1864;
Meyer, Febronius (Ger.) anti-Roman;
Haller, Papacy and German Catholic Reform (Ger.).

For eighteenth century Free Thought:
Lecky, Rationalism ;
Leslie Stephen, under above heading;
Morley on Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, may be consulted, all partisans of the Enlightenment.
Devas C. E., Key to the World's Progress, takes the Catholic view, and criticizes the whole movement.

Since the French Revolution:
Nielsen (Lutheran bishop), History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century (E. Tr.), especially volume ii.
Artaud de Montor, History of the Sovereign Pontiffs (Fr.);
Consalvi and Pacca, Memoirs ( Pacca, E. Tr.);
Chateaubriand , Genius of Christianity (Fr.);
Autobiography (E. Tr. by De Mattos);
D'Haussonville, Napoleon and Pius VII. (Fr.);
Life of Döllinger (Ger.);
Capefigue, Restoration and Louis Philippe ;
Gibson, Lamennais ; and L.'s correspondence, Words of a Believer, Affairs of Rome (Fr.);
Newman Apologia, Essays, Critical and Historical, Correspondence ;

Gioberti, Life and Letters (Ital.);
Rosmini, Life and Roman Mission (Ital.);
also English Life by Lockhart;
Crawford M., Ave Roma Immortalis ;
Tivaroni, a Mazzinian, History of the Italian Risorgimento (Ital.);
Countess M. Cesaresco, Liberation of Italy ;
Bolton King, History of Italian Unity ;
C. Cantù , on Italian Independence ;
Mazade C. de, Cavour (Fr.); and C's correspondence;
Döllinger, The Church and the Churches (E. Tr.);
Lagrange, Life of Dupanloup (E. Tr.);
Ollivier E., "The Liberal Empire" and Church and State in the Vatican Council (Fr.);
Brosch, History of Papal States II. , on Pius IX.;
and Nurenberger, Popedom and Ecclesiastical States (Ger.);
De Cesare, Last Days of Papal Rome " (E. Tr.).

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