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Franklin D. Roosevelt's World Order


NOTES

MOST of the materials used in this study are in the form of publications that are widely available. However, the complete verbatim transcripts of the President's press conferences, 1933-1945, are available only in typescript at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial Library, Hyde Park. New York, although a few microfilm copies covering the years through 1941 have been made for a few university libraries.All the unpublished letters cited are also in the Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park and the particular file in which they are located is indicated, in most cases, as follows: (PPF) President's Personal Files; and (PSF) President's Secretary's Files.A complete citation is given below only the first time an item is cited.

PREFACE

1. Edward Reilly Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians ( Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1949). 30.
2. See Daniel R. Fusfeld, The Economic Thought of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Origins of the New Deal ( New York: Columbia University Press. 1956).
3. See James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox ( New York: Harcourt Brace. 1956), 90. 334-35; and Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. , The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919-193 ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1957), 395-96.
4. Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull ( 2 vols., New York: Macmillan Co., 1948), 194; Sumner Welles , The Time for Decision ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1944), 50; Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 30; Joseph C. Grew, Ten Years in Japan ( New York: Simon & Schuster, 1944), 160; William D. Leahy , I Was There ( New York: Whittlesey House, 1950), 346; Franklin D. Roosevelt , The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, comp. Samuel I. Rosenman ( 13 vols., New York: I-V, Random House. 1938; VI-IX. Macmillan Co., 1941; X-XIII, Harper & Bros., 1950), 194445 vol., xv. Hereafter cited as Public Papers and by year covered by volume.
5. This proposal is printed in full in the appendix to Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1949), 353-66.
6. Frank Burt Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt ( 3 vols., Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1952-56), II, 126-27.
7. James Aloysius Farley, Jim Farley's Story ( New York: Whittlesey House, 1948), 56.
8. This is seen repeatedly in the two volumes by William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, The Challenge to Isolation, 1937-40 and The Undeclared War, 1940-41 ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1952-53). It is also emphasized in Burns, Roosevelt, 262; and by William C. Bullitt, "How We Won the War and Lost the Peace," Life, August 30, 1948, p. 87.
9. Burns, Roosevelt, 85, 156, 247, 33435, 517; See also Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 75; and John Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1950), 110.
10. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., xiii.

CHAPTER I

1. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 30, 33, 559; Elliott Roosevelt (ed.), F.D.R., His Personal Letters ( 4 vols., New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce 1947-50), 1928-45, II, 1323-24: U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945 ( Washington: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 1955). 622; Welles, The Time for Decision, 174; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 227; Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 370-71; ibid., II, 13.
2. New York Times, March 2, 1918; ibid., August 13, 1920.
3. Ibid., April 8, 1923; Eleanor Roosevelt , This I Remember, 362-63.
4. Franklin D. Roosevelt, "Our Foreign Policy: A Democratic View," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928), 57781; Franklin D. Roosevelt, Looking Forward ( New York: John Day Co., 1933), 254-55; Public Papers, 1933 vol., 546; Sumner Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1950), 176-77; Harold L. Ickes, The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes ( 3 vols., New York: Simon & Schuster, 1953-54), I, 483-84.
5. Herbert Feis, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), 21, 67-68.
6. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 363; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 422-23; ibid., 1940 vol., 670: Roosevelt , Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 664-66.
7. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 203-04, 235.
8. Fusfeld, The Economic Thought of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 223.
9. New York Times, October 6, 1920; Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., 636-38, 677, 698, 723-26.
10. Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 428.
11. Press Conference, November 23, 1934; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 607.
12. Ibid., 1936 vol., 289-90; ibid., 1937 vol., 285; ibid., 1940 vol., 5; FDR to Nobel Peace Prize Committee, January 13, 1938 (PSF); Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 652-53; ibid., 1928-45, II, 875-76.
13. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 130; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 125; Farley, Jim Farley's Story, 199.
14. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy." Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928), 582-83; Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 428.
15. Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 55; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, p. 477; Franklin D. Roosevelt , Whither Bound? ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1926), 6.
16. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., xii-xiii.
17. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 118; Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., xi-xii, 100; Rexford G. Tugwell, The Democratic Roosevelt ( Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1957), 204.
18. Public Papers, 1936 vol., 384-86, 640; ibid., 1937 vol., 116.
19. Ibid., 1928-32 vol., 649; ibid., 1935 vol., 16; ibid., 1937 vol., lii, lix-lx.
20. Press Conference, September 25, 1936.
21. Public Papers, 1936 vol., 606; ibid., 1938 vol., 242, 398-99.
22. Stettinius, Roosewlt and the Russians, 276.
23. Carroll Kilpatrick (ed.), Roosevelt and Daniels (Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1952), 181-82.
24. Public Papers, 1940 vol., xxviii.
25. Ibid., 1940 vol., xxvill; ibid., 1936 vol., 572.
26. Ibid., 1933 vol., 394; Ross T. McIntire , White House Physician ( New York: C. P. Putnam's & Sons, 1946). 111; FDR to William E. Dodd, November 13, 1933 (PPF); Roosevelt , Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 370.
27. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 546-49; Ibid., 1936 vol., 9-12; Franklin D. Roosevelt , On Our Way ( New York: John Day Co., 1934), 108.
28. FDR Memorandum to Steve Early, January 10, 1939 (PPF): Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 351-52; Press Conference, June 11, 1943.
29. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 576, 735; Joseph E. Davies, Mission to Moscow ( New York: Simon & Schuster, 1941), xiii-xiv, 60; Public Papers, 1937 vol., 407; See, for example, ibid., 1939 vol., xxiv-xxvii. This introduction was written in the summer of 1941, Langer and Gleason, Challenge to isolation, 88); FDR to Queen Wilhelmina, December 19, 1939 (PSF); Ickes, Secret Diary, III, 115-16; Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 113.
30. FDR to Jesse I. Straus, February 13, 1936 (PSF).
31. U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1933, I, 210.
32. Welles, Time for Decision, 50; Sumner Welles , Where Are We Heading? ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1946). 4; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 192845, II, 1175.
33. Public Papers, 1934 vol., 239-42; U. S. Department of State, Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy, 1931-1941 ( Washington: U. S. Govt. Printing Office, 1943), 229.
34. Hull, Memoirs, I, 379-60; Roosevelt , Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 463; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 606; Press Conference, December 29, 1936.
35. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 680, 689, 699-700.
36. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928), 586; New York Times, September 25, 1920.
37. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., x.
38. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 450; Public Papers, 1933 vol., 3.
39. Press Conference, September 7, 1934; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 236.
40. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 16, 347; Bullitt, "How We Won the War and Lost the Peace," Life, August 30, 1948; Press Conference, July 13, 1937; Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 511; Edvard Benes, Memoirs ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1954), 76.
41. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 8, 50; ibid., 1944-45 vol., 162.
42. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 241, 260.
43. FDR to George C. Sweet, November 10, 1937 (PPF); Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 716-17, 734-36; U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1937, IV, 170.
44. Ibid., 1938, I, 121; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 766, 776; McIntire, White House Physician, 111; Henry L. Morgenthau Jr., "The Morgenthau Diaries," Collier's, October 18, 1947.
45. Press Conference, April 18, 1940.
46. Ibid., June 5, 1940.
47. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 122; Public Papers, 1939 vol., xxxvii.

CHAPTER II

1. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 131.
2. Ibid., 1941 vol., xxx, 182; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1154.
3. Leahy, I Was There, 348; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 713.
4. Morgenthau, "The MorgenthauDiaries," Diaries," Collier's, October 11, 1947.
5. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 198-99.
6. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 160.
7. Joseph C. Grew, Turbulent Era; A Diplomatic Record of Forty Years, 1904-1945 ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1952), II, 1260; Public Papers, 1941 vol., 529-30; ibid., 1942 vol., 105; Press Conference, January 24, 1943.
8. Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 396.
9. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 115; Press Conference, January 2, 1942; ibid., October 27, 1942.
10. FDR to William M. Chadbourne, April 7, 1943 (PPF).
11. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 202-04.
12. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, pp. 237-40.
13. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 253, 260.
14. New, York Times, August 14, 1920.
15. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, pp. 500-01.
16. Ibid., 1928-45, I, 506-07; Public Papers, 1935 vol., 452-53; ibid., 1938 vol., 492; ibid., 1939 vol., 462.
17. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 258; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1058.
18. H. H. Arnold, Global Mission ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1949), 97; Donald Scott Carmichael (ed.). F.D.R., Columnist: the Uncollected Columns of Franklin D. Roosevelt ( Chicago: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1947), 64.
19. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1926-45, II, 751; Public Papers, 1939 vol., xxxix, 367-69.
20. Arnold, Global Mission, 178.
21. Press Conference, November 15, 1938; Public Papers, 1940 vol., xxxi, 198-200; ibid., 1941 vol., 188-89.
22. Ibid., 1939 vol., 2-3; ibid., 1940 vol., 238-39; ibid., 1941 vol., 264-71.
23. Ibid., 1936 vol., 290.
24. Ibid., 1937 vol., 407-08.
25. Roosevelt's Foreign Policy, 1933-1941 ( New York: Wilfred Funk, Inc., 1942), 148; Joseph Alsop and Robert Kintner , American White Paper: The Story of American Diplomacy and the Second World War ( New York: Simon & Schuster, 1940), 19; Press Conference, April 8, 1939.
26. Ibid., April 20, 1939, Tully, F.D.R., My Boss, 244; Public Papers, 1939 vol., xxxix; ibid., 1940 vol., xxviii-lv: ibid., 1941 vol., 183-84, 367, 439-40; Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 595; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1106. 27. Public Papers, 1937 vol., 407-08.
28. Press Conference, March 31, 1939.
29. Ibid., April 18, 1940; ibid., June 14, 1940; Public Papers, 1940 vol., 63438.
30. Franklin D. Roosevelt, "On Your Own Heads," Scribner's, April 1917, pp. 413-14.
31. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 968.
32. Ibid., 1928-45, II, 1093.
33. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 246-47, 261; Roosevelt, "On Your Own Heads," Scribner's, April, 1917, p. 415; New York Times, January 18, 1914; October 22, 1914; December 6, 1914; June 10, 1916.
34. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 463; ibid., 1941 vol., 397-98.
35. Ibid., 1940 vol., 463-64; ibid., 1941 vol., 186-87, 391.
36. Press Conference. April 20, 1939.
37. Ibid., September 15, 1939; ibid., September 22, 1939.
38. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 146; Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War ( 6 vols., Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1948-53), II, 517-18; Public Papers, 1941 vol., 18586, 229-30, 367, 388.
39. U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1935, IV, 519; ibid., 1937, III, 971; ibid., 1938, II, 77; FDR to Bishop Oldham, March 3, 1936 (PPF); Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 273; McIntire, White House Physician, 118.
40. Press Conference, April 20, 1939; ibid., February 19, 1940; ibid., February 27, 1940; ibid., April 18, 1940; ibid., September 3, 1940; Public Papers, 1940 vol., xxiv.
41. Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 571; Press Conference, February 3, 1939; ibid., February 17, 1939; ibid., April 20. 1939; ibid., June 23, 1939; ibid., May
30, 1940; Personal Letters, 1928-45. II, 863, 967-68; Public Papers, 1940 vol., 635-36; ibid., 1941 vol., 388; Welles Memo of conversation between FDR and Italian Ambassador Colonna, May 2, 1940 (PSF).
42. Press Conference, September 12, 1939, Bullitt, "How We Won the War and Lost the Peace," Life, August 30, 1948, p. 86; Forrest Davis and Ernest K. Lindley, How War Came: An American White Paper from the Fall of France to Pearl Harbor ( New York: Simon & Schuster, 1942), 26-27.
43. Kilpatrick, Roosevelt and Daniels, 182-83; Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 568; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 206; Press Conference, June 23, 1939; ibid., May 30, 1940; ibid., June 14, 1940.
44. Public Papers, 1941 vol., 386-87.
45. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 335-36; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 125, 137-39, 713; McIntire, White House Physician, 115; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 125-26; Press; Conference, May 23, 1940.

CHAPTER III

1. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 39, 51; Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 409, 634-35; Benes, Memoirs, 77; Davis and Lindley, How War Came, 27-28.
2. Burns, Roosevelt, 61; Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 268-69.
3. Morgenthau, "The Morgenthau Diaries," Collier's, October 11, 1947; Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 68-49. 4. Eleanor Roosevelt. This I Remember, 207; FDR to Madame Sandos. December 12, 1935 (PPF): Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 473, 481; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 203, 218; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 547; Hull, Memoirs, I, 683-84.
5. Ibid., I, 400, 416; U. S. Department of State, Peace and War, 23; Public Papers, 1935 vol., 346; Roosevelts Foreign Policy, 60; Press Conference, December 29, 1936.
6. Ibid., August 11, 1939; ibid., April 20, 1939; Hull, Memoirs, I, 410, 643; Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 171-72; U. S. Department of State. Peace and War, 764.
7. Hull, Memoirs, I, 402: Press Conference. December 12, 1934; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 91; Roosevelts Foreign Policy, 196.
8. FDR to Ray Stannard Baker. November 13, 1935 (PPF). Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 530.
9. Hull, Memoirs, I, 432-33; Roosevelt's Foreign Policy, 82, 93-94, 17475; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 91; Ibid., 1939 vol., 517.
10. Charles G. Fenwick International Law ( New York: Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 3rd edition, 1948), 612.
11. Ibid., 611-12; Hull, Memoirs, I, 40709; Charles Callan Tansill, Backdoor to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 1933-1941 ( Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1952), 214-21.
12. U. S. Department of State, Peace and War, 23; Hull. Memoirs, I, 228; Press Conference, October 6, 1937; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 878.
13. U. S. Department of State, Peace and War, 271; Hull, Memoirs, I, 410, 414-15.
14. Press Conference, April 17, 1937; ibid., April 20, 1938.
15. Ibid., April 21, 1938; Public Papers, 1937 vol., 191-93; Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 380, 569-70.
16. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 873; Langer and Gleason Challenge to Isolation, 50, 142; Hull, Memoirs, I, 643.
17. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 810-11.
18. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 463, 513-20; ibid., 1940 vol., 641, 669; Hull, Memoirs, I, 684, 685; Press Conference, November 3, 1939.
19. Ickes. Secret Diary, 11, 474.
20. Ibid., 11, 702.
21. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 202.
22. Ibid., 283; Ickes, Secret Diary, 111, 75, 202; Nancy Harvison Hooker (ed.), The Moffat Papers: Selections from the Diplomatic Journals of Jay Pierrepont Moffat, 1919-193 ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1956), 311.
23. Press Conference, December 17, 1940.
24. Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 469, 474, 481.
25. Ibid., II, 481; Davis and Lindley, How War Came, 27-28; Alsop and Kintner, American White Papers, 18; Hull. Memoirs, I, 612. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 136-37; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 900.
26. Hooker, Moffat Papers, 311.
27. Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 447; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 100; Sir Ronald Lindsey to Viscount Halifax, September 20, 1938 (PSF); Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 202.
28. Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 523; Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 458, 735, 860; Public Papers, 1941 vol., 444-45.

CHAPTER IV

1. Arthur S. Link, Wilson the Diplomatist ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1956), 92-93.
2. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 17, 129; Roosevelt , Personal Letters, 1905-28, pp. 477, 503.
3. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., 646.
4. Ibid., 1937 vol., 378.
5. Press Conference, May 16, 1933.
6. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 161.
7. Press Conference, February 12, 1943.
8. Ibid., March 30, 1943; ibid., October 29, 1943; ibid., October 17, 1944.
9. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 498.
10. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 553.
11. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, pp. 237-40.
12. Quoted in Freidel, Roosevelt, 1, 241.
13. Ibid., I, 260.
14. Ibid., II, 17; Burns, Roosevelt, 70.
15. Quoted in Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 129.
16. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 445.
17. Press Conference, February 12, 1943; Henry L. Stimson and McGeorge Bundy , On Active Service in Peace and War ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1947), 545; Churchill, The Second World War, IV, 635.
18. Press Conference, December 17, 1943.
19. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 89, 91; ibid., 1942 vol., 352.
20. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45. II, 466-67.
21. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 586.
22. Ibid., 1928-32 vol., x-xi.
23. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 963.
24. Quoted In Burns, Roosevelt, 423.
25. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 112-13. 328.
26. Ibid., 1943 vol., 968.
27. FDR to Walter Lippman, November 8, 1943 (PPF).
28. Press Conference, December 22, 1944; Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 499, 579.
29. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 266. With regard to the last sentence in this quotation, Roosevelt himself occasionally indicated a belief the Four Freedoms could be attained; and he once wrote William Allen White saying, "I think that in a quarter of a century the firm of White and Roosevelt might be able to bring the Four Freedoms at least to this nation of ours." FDR to W. A. White, February 9, 1943 (PPF). Other statements by Roosevelt and his general attitude toward such ideals have convinced this writer, however, that to Roosevelt such ideals as the Four Freedoms were simply ideals -- approachable but never entirely attainable -- and were to be used by humanity simply as guiding stars.

30. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1372.
31. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 131-32; ibid., II, 204.
32. Burns, Roosevelt, 95-97.
33. Ibid., 117.
34. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 3-4.
35. Ibid., 1935 vol., 16.
36. Ibid., 1936 vol., 159, 165.
37. Roosevelt, Whither Bound?, 6, 15-16.
38. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 219.
39. Ibid., 1928-45, I, 338-40.
40. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 16.
41. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 192845, I, 118-20.
42. Ibid., 1928-45, I, 98.
43. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., 649.
44. Ibid., 1936 vol., 384-86, 390.
45. Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 55.
46. Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect, 37-38; Burns, Roosevelt, 476.
47. Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew ( New York: Viking Press, 1946), 17-18.
48. Moley, After Seven Years, 390-91. See also Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 24.
49. Public Papers, 1941 vol., 8.
50. Ibid., 1935 vol., 236-37.
51. Quoted in Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 216.
52. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 35; Press Conference, March 16, 1945; Ickes. Secret Diary, III, 115-16. 53. Sir Robert Lindsay to Viscount Halifax, September 20, 1938 (PSF); Public Papers, 1939 vol., 454, 511-12.
54. Press Conference, November 18, 1938; ibid., June 2, 1944; Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 163-65; Morgenthau , "Morgenthau Diaries," Collier's, November 1, 1947, p. 65; Sumner Welles, We Need Not Fail ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1948), 24-25.

55. Roosevelt, Whither Bound?, 6-13, 20-28.
56. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 78.
57. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 451.
58. Roosevelt's Foreign Policy, 210.
59. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 416.
60. FDR to Sam Rosenman, March 19, 1943 (PPF).
61. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 524.
62. Press Conference, December 22, 1944; ibid., February 23, 1945.
63. Hanson W. Baldwin, Great Mistakes of the War ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1950), 7.
64. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 68.
65. Burns, Roosevelt, 475.
66. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 5-6.
67. Burns, Roosevelt, 476.
68. FDR to William E. Dodd, November 13, 1993 (PPF); Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 370; Public Papers, 1936 vol., 605.
69. Press Conference, December 27, 1935.
70. Ibid., December 29, 1936.
71. Public Papers, 1937 vol., 409-10.
72. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1298.
73. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 197.
74. Ibid., 1928-32 vol., 756.
75. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 259-60.
76. Burns, Roosevelt, 85.
77. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., 21.
78. Freidel, Roosevelt, III, 60.
79. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 60.
80. Ibid., 1933 vol., 394.
81. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 672.
82. Public Papers, 1941 vol., xviii.
83. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 719.
84. Ibid., 1928-45, II, 757.
85. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 278.
86. Ibid., 1942 vol., 1054.
87. Press Conference, October 12, 1943; Public Papers, 1942 vol., 417, 483-84.
88. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 384; Tully, F.D.R., My Boss, 86.
89. James A. Farley. Behind the Ballots: The Personal History of a Politician ( New York: Harcourt, Brace Co., 1938), 209.
90. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 166.
91. Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 511.
92. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., xiii, 354, 360.
93. FDR to John F. Carew, March 10, 1943 (PPF).
94. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 56-57.
95. Press Conference, April 18, 1940.
96. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1349.
97. Ibid., II, 1156.
98. Ibid., II, 1298-99.
99. Quoted in Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 30.
100. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 118.
101. FDR to H. G. Wells, February 13, 1935 (PPF).
102. FDR to H. G. Wells, March 29, 1937 (PPF).
103. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 751.
104. FDR to William E. Dodd, August 5, 1936 (PSF).
105. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 248.
106. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1300.
107. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 498.
108. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 548.
109. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 220, 335-36.
110. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 967.
111. Hull, Memoirs, I, 597; Welles, Time for Decision, 74.
112. Benes, Memoirs, 196; Public Papers, 1943 vol., 30.
113. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 560.
114. Benes, Memoirs, 196; Public Papers, 1943 vol., 32.
115. Ibid., 1943 vol., 547; FDR to C. C. Burlingame, May 29, 1944 (PPF).
116. Benes, Memoirs, 196.
117. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 33-34.
118. Press Conference, October 17, 1944; U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 661.

CHAPTER V

1. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 33-34.
2. Ibid., 1933 vol., 131.
3. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 235.
4. Ibid., II, 236-37.
5. Ibid., II, 236.
6. Ibid., II, 237.
7. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( April, 1928), 58385.
8. Welles, Time far Decision, 191.
9. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 14.
10. Ibid., 1933 vol., 130.
11. Ibid., 1933 vol., 323-24; Welles, Time for Decision, 194-97.
12. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 530-31.
13. Ibid., 1934 vol., 270-71.
14. FDR to Henry Wallace, May 17, 1942 (PSF).
15. U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1933, II, 925, 928.
16. Welles, Time for Decision, 203.
17. Press Conference, April 1, 1938; Kilpatrick, Roosevelt and Daniels, 185.
18. Welles, Time for Decision, 192.
19. Public Papers, 1934 vol., 11-12.
20. Louise W. Holborn (ed.), War and Peace Aims of the United Nations ( 2 vols., Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1943, 1948), I, 25. 21. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 530-31.
22. Ibid., 1936 vol., 601.
23. Ibid., 1940 vol., 160.
24. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1194-95.
25. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It ( New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1946), 129.
26. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 498.
27. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 595-96.
28. Ibid., 1933 vol., 545-46.
29. Ibid., 1936 vol., 6, 600, 616-17; Hull, Memoirs, I, 493.
30. Ibid., 1940 vol., 159-60.
31. Ibid., 1940 vol., 588.
32. Hull, Memoirs, I, 551-53.
33. Press Conference, October 1, 1943.
34. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 460-61.
35. Ibid., 1934 vol., 134.
36. Ibid., 1936 vol., 440-41.
37. Ibid., 1936 vol., 602-03.
38. Ibid., 1934 vol., 498.
39. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 254.
40. Ibid., 111.
41. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 410.
42. Ibid., 1933 vol., 416.
43. Press Conference, May 19, 1936.
44. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 605-06, 875-76; Hull, Memoirs, I, 546-49; Churchill, Second World War, I, 251-55; U. S. Department
of State, Foreign Relations, 1938, I, 360-61, 368-69.
45. Memorandum of conversation between FDR and Italian Ambassador to U. S., March 22, 1939 (PSF).
46. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 574.
47. Welles, Time for Decision, 85.
48. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1025.
49. Carlton J. H. Hayes, Wartime Mission in Spain, 1942-1945 ( New York: Macmillan Co., 1946), 11.
50. FDR to Dr. Antonio Salazar, November 4, 1943 (PSF).
51. Press Conference, January 24, 1943.
52. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 175.
53. Press Conference, April 19, 1943.
54. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 366-67.
55. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 232-33.
56. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 922.
57. Churchill, Second World War, IV, 201.
58. McIntire, White Home Physician, 170-71.
59. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 12930.
60. Press Conference, February 12, 1943.
61. FDR to William E. Dodd, January 9, 1937 (PPF).
62. Press Conference, March 19, 1943.
63. FDR to William E. Dodd. January 9, 1937 (PPF).
64. Press Conference, August 6, 1940.
65. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1423.
66. FDR to Cordell Hull, September 16, 1943 (PSF).
67. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 578.
68. FDR to Lord Athlone, July 19, 1940 (PSF).
69. Press Conference, March 13, 1945.
70. Ibid., October 29, 1943.
71. Ibid., March 16, 1943.
72. Ibid., March 30, 1943.
73. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 127.
74. Public Papers, 1934 vol., 347.
75. Roosevelt's Foreign Policy, 89.
76. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 132-33.
77. Ibid., 1940 vol., 161.
78. Ibid., 1942 vol., 493.
79. Ibid., 1938 vol., 412.
80. Ibid., 1938 vol., 219.
81. Ibid., 1939 vol., 195-98.
82. Ibid., 1940 vol., 160.
83. Ibid., 1943 vol., 405-06.
84. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 343-44.
85. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1445-47.
86. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1532-33; Welles, We Need Not Fail, 29-30.
87. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 289.
88. New York Times, March 2, 1919; ibid., October 28, 1920.
89. Press Conference, May 16, 1933.
90. Morgenthau, "Morgenthau Diaries." Collier's, October 11, 1947, p. 21.
91. Public Papers, 1937 vol., 408-09, 411.
92. Hull, Memoirs, I, 552.
93. Welles Memorandum of conversation between FDR and Italian Ambassador to U. S., March 22. 1939 (PSF).
94. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 4.
95. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 347.
96. Press Conference, January 9, 1940.
97. Ibid., April 18, 1940.
98. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 351-52.
99. Ibid., 1936 vol., 286.
100. Ibid., 1935 vol., 447.
101. Roosevelt, Personal Lesson, 1928-45, I, 531.
102. Public Papers, 1936 vol., 217.
103. Ibid., 1936 vol., 236.
104. Ibid., 1933 vol., 263.
105. Ibid., 1935 vol., 444.
106. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45. II, 894-95.
107. Public Papers, 1934 vol., 251.
108. Ibid., 1936 vol., 417.
109. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 625-26.
110. FDR to Arthur Sweetser, December 9, 1936 (PPF).
111. Public Papers, 1936 vol., 640-41.
112. Ibid., 1939 vol., 199.
113. Ibid., 1939 vol., xxiv.
114. Ibid., 1943 vol., xi-xii.

VI. THE ERADICATION OF EVIL FORCES

1. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1109-11; Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 18-19; Churchill, Second World War, VI, 64; Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 185-86.
2. See Arnold Wolfers and Laurence W. Martin (eds.), The Anglo-American Tradition in Foreign Affairs ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1956), 71.
3. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 147, 163.
4. Ibid., 1928-45, II, 766.
5. Ibid., 1928-45, I, 351-52, 700.
6. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 347-48.
7. Tully, F.D.R., My Boss, 234.
8. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 466; ibid., 1941 vol., 368, 389, 411, 555.
9. Ibid., 1941 vol., 334.
10. Grew, Turbulent Era, II, 1259.
11. FDR to Harold S. Vanderbilt, May 26, 1941 (PPF).
12. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 32-41.
13. Ibid., 1942 vol., 468; ibid., 1943 vol., 367.
14. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 445.
15. Press Conferences, October 5, 1943; Public Papers, 1943 vol., 396; ibid., 1944-45 vol., 215.
16. Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, 301-02.
17. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 32-33.
18. Barnes, Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace, 241-43.
19. Franklin D. Roosevelt, "Shall We Trust Japan," Asia, July, 1923; FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928).
20. Farley, Jim Farley's Story, 34.
21. Ibid., 39.
22. McIntire, White House Physician, 109.
23. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 379; Press Conference, February 23, 1945.
24. Public Papers, 1941 vol., 367; ibid., 1942 vol., 42.
25. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 225.
26. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 151.
27. U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1939, I, 424.
28. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 247-48, 362, 370; Hull, Memoirs, I, 739. For Welles's account of his mission see his Time for Decision, Chapter 3.
29. U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1940, II, 426.
30. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 638.
31. Ibid., 1941 vol., 304.
32. Ibid., 1942 vol., 425-26.
33. Ibid., 1943 vol., 33.
34. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 226.
35. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 352-53.
36. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 379.
37. Press Conference, February 23, 1945.
38. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 333.
39. Ibid., I, 370-71.
40. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1323-25.
41. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 227; Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 254.
42. FDR to Clarence Poe, June 1, 1940 (PPF).
43. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 638.
44. Ibid., 1941 vol., 387.
45. Ibid., 1943 vol., 327.
46. Ibid., 1943 vol., 391.
47. FDR to Senator Kenneth McKellar, August 21, 1944.
48. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1534-35.
49. Press Conference, July 29, 1944.
50. Ibid., July 29, 1944; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1485-86, 1504-05.
51. Ibid., 1928-45, 1504-05.
52. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 532.
53. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 332.
54. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 391.
55. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 710.
56. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 39, 179; ibid., 1944-45 vol., 339.
57. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1534-35.
58. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 532, 575-77.
59. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1183; Press Conference, July 30, 1943; Public Papers, 1942 vol., 329-30, 418; ibid., 1943 vol., 80, 339.
60. Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, 585; Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 382; U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta. 571.
61. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1291; Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 518-19, 54243.
62. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences as Malta and Yalta. 614.
63. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 711.
64. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1265.
65. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 537; Leahy, I Was There, 210-11; Churchill, Second World War, V, 400-03.
66. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 614.
67. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1602-06.
68. Ibid., II, 1610-22; Stimson and Bundy , On Active Service, 580-83; Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 269-70.
69. James F. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1947). 181-82.
70. Ibid., 28; U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 155, 622; Public Papers, 1944-43 vol., 269-70; Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 132-33.
71. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 333-35.
72. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1621.
73. Ibid., II, 1407-08; Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 298-99.
74. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 320-21.

CHAPTER VII

1. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 172.
2. Ibid., I, 223-24.
3. Ibid., I. 231-32.
4. Ibid., I. 227.
5. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, pp. 237-40.
6. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 20.
7. Ibid., I. 260-61.
8. Ibid., II, 12.
9. Ibid., II, 26.
10. Ibid., I. 242.
11. Press Conference, December 13, 1935.
12. FDR, "On Your Own Heads," Scribner's, April, 1917, p. 413.
13. Ibid., 416.
14. Freidel. Roosevelt, II, 18-19.
15. Ibid., II, 6.
16. FDR to Norman Thomas. August 12, 1940.
17. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 95.
18. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928), 578.

19. FDR. "Shall We Trust Japan," Scribner's, July, 1923.
20. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs. VI ( July, 1928).
21. Carmichael, F.D.R., Columnist, 64.
22. U. S. Department of State, Peace and War, 179.
23. Public Papers. 1933 vol., 167.
24. Press Conference, May 10, 1933; U.S. Department of State, Peace and War, 179-81.
25. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45. I, 378-79.
26. Alsop and Kintner, American White Paper, 14.
27. Press Conference, August 25, 1933; Hull, Memoirs. I, 233; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 379.
28. FDR to Nicholas Murray Butler, September 26, 1934 (PPF); Hooker, Moffat Papers, 116, 119.
29. FDR to Norman Davis, October 5, 1934 (PSF).
30. FDR to Norman Davis, November 9, 1934 (PSF).
31. Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 7.
32. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 565; Davies, Mission to Moscow, 142.
33. FDR to Mackenzie King. October 11, 1938 (PSF); Alsop and Kintner, American White Paper, 86; Public Papers, 1939 vol., xxx, 204.
34. Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 679.
35. Ibid., 794.
36. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1642-43; Roosevelt , Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1366-67; Churchill, Second World War, III, 441.
37. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 904.
38. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 178.
39. FDR, "Shall We Trust Japan," Asia, July, 1923; FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928).
40. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 158, 192-93.
41. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 560; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1458.
42. Welles, Time for Decision, 141.
43. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 712.
44. FDR to Norman Davis, October 5, 1934 (PSF).
45. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 192-93.
46. Hull, Memoirs, I, 379.
47. Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, 173.
48. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 68-71; Beard, American Foreign Policy, 38.
49. Ibid., 38; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 131.
50. See Ickes, Secret Diary, II, passim.
51. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 464, 467.

CHAPTER VIII

1. For excellent discussions of these different points of view see Howard K. Beale , Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1956), passim; and Arthur S. Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910-1917 ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1952), chs. 4-5; Freidel, Roosevelt, I, ch. XVI.
2. Ibid., I, 139-40.
3. Ibid., II, 81.
4. Ibid., II, 135-37.
5. Ibid., I, 270-85, passim.
6. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 405.
7. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 429.
8. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1257.
9. Davis and Lindley, How War Came, 86-87; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1104-05.
10. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 337; Hull, Memoirs, II, 1482-84.
11. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1275; Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 774; Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 45. 12. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 24-25. 13. Ibid., 74-75; Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 281; Press Conference, February 12, 1943; ibid., February 5, 1944.
14. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 177.
15. Benes, Memoirs, 184.
16. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1489.
17. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1482-84.
18. Press Conference, February 23, 1945.
19. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 164-65, 204.
20. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 128.
21. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 226.
22. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1365-68.
23. Ibid., II, 1451-55; Churchill, Second World War, VI, 208.
24. Arthur Bliss Lane, I Saw Poland Betrayed ( New York: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1948), 67.
25. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 541, 579-81.
26. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 382.
27. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 224; Churchill, Second World War, VI, 299-301.
28. Press Conference, January 11, 1938.
29. Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, 298.
30. Churchill, Second World War, IV. 212-14, 218-19; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 530.
31. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 475-76.
32. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 344; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 777; Elliott Roosevelt , As He Saw It, 165.
33. Press Conference, February 5, 1944.
34. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 223-24; Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 150.
35. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 695; U. S. Department of State,
Foreign Relations, 1935, IV, 519; ibid., 1937, III, 971; ibid., 1938, II, 77, 84, 93.
36. Ibid., 1928-45, II, 871; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 135.
37. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 909.
38. Press Conference, April 18, 1940.
39. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1023.
40. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 426.
41. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1372; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 572-73.
42. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45. II, 1490, 1493.
43. Hull Memoirs, II, 1533-34.
44. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 770; Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 221; Joseph W. Stilwell.
The Stilwell Papers, ed. Theodore H. White ( New York: W. Sloan Associates, 1948), 253.
45. Ibid., 253; U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 770; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1489; Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 237-38; Press Conference, February 23, 1945; Churchill, Second World War, III, 439; Hull, Memoirs, II, 1595.
46. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1305; Press Conference, February 5, 1944.
47. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 333, 769; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 719, 782; Hull, Memoirs, II, 1266, 1595-96; Welles, Seven Decision that Shaped History, 153. 48. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1596. 49. Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, 599-601. 50. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 57. Press Conference, April 5, 1945.
51. Press Conference, April 5, 1945.
52. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1372; Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 554, 795.
53. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 136-37.
54. Hull. Memoirs, II, 1165; Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 554.
55. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45. II, 1329.
56. Benes, Memoirs, 195.
57. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1266.
58. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 137.
59. Ibid., 136; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 711; Constantin Fotitch, The War We Lost: Yugoslavia's Tragedy and the Failure of the West ( New York: Viking Press. 1948). 189-90.
60. For texts of these Declarations see Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 22-23, 24.
61. Leahy, I Was There, 46, 135, 136; Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, 546-51. 62. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 224. 63. McIntire, White House Physician, 218. 64. Churchill, Second World War, VI, 378-84 passim; U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 848.
65. McIntire, White House Physician, 218.
66. Leahy, I Was There, 315-16,
67. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 500.
68. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 534-35.
69. Ibid., 1938 vol., 565.
70. Ibid., 1941 vol. 69.
71. Ibid., 1943 vol., 78.
72. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 321.
73. Benes, Memoirs, 195-223.
74. U. S. Department of State. The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 217-18.
75. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 500-01.

IX. WORLD-WIDE DEMOCRACY AND FREEDOM

1. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 7.
2. Ibid., 1940 vol., 639.
3. Ibid., 1940 vol., 547.
4. Ibid., 1940 vol., 301.
5. Ibid., 1940 vol., 260.
6. Ibid., 1940 vol., 437-38; FDR to John C. Shaffer, June 21, 1937 (PPF).
7. Ibid., June 21, 1937 (PPF).
8. Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 92.
9. Ibid., 117-18.
10. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 2.
11. Press Conference, June 5, 1940.
12. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 985.
13. Public Papers, 1941 vol., 63, 66.
14. Ibid., 1941 vol., 455.
15. Press Conference, July 5, 1940.
16. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 1-2.
17. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 197-98.
18. Public Papers, 1934 vol., 287-88.
19. Ibid., 1936 vol., 635.
20. Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 108-16 passim.
21. Ibid., 118.
22. Public Papers, 1937 vol., 116.
23. Ibid., 1937 vol., 359-60; Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 163.
24. Public Papers, 1937 vol., xlvi-vii, lix-lx.
25. Ibid., 1938 vol., 182, 232, 242; ibid. , 1939 vol., 555-56; FDR to George L. Radcliffe, July 31, 1939 (PSF).
26. Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 297.
27. Ibid., 343.
28. Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 409.
29. Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 118; FDR to William E. Dodd, January 9, 1937 (PSF).
30. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 567-71.
31. Ibid., 1941 vol., 4-5.
32. Ibid., 1941 vol., 486.
33. Ibid., 1936 vol., 609.
34. Ibid., 1937 vol., 292.
35. Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 136-37.
36. Ibid., 336-38.
37. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 310.
38. Wartime Correspondence Between President Roosevelt and Pope Pius XII ( New York: Macmillan Co., 1947), 5; Denys Smith, America and the Axis War ( New York: Macmillan Co., 1942), 244.
39. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 409.
40. Ibid., 1942 vol., 258.
41. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, II, 219.
42. Ibid., II, 266.
43. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1558.
44. Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 433; Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect, 78-80; Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 346-47; Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 39-40; Farley, Behind the Ballots, 208; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 197.
45. Tully, F.D.R., My Boss, 6; Public Papers, 1939 vol., 461; Ibid., 1940 vol., 58, 602-03.
46. Press Conference, November 17, 1933.
47. William Phillips, Ventures in Diplomacy ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1952). 222-23.
48. Public Papers, 1941 vol., 334.
49. Hull, Memoirs, II, 977; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 388, 391-93.
50. Ibid., 448-49; Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 316.
51. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1120.
52. Churchill. Second World War, III, 682-83.
53. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 543.
54. Press Conference, February 13, 1940.
55. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 933-34.
56. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 708.
57. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 346.
58. Press Conference, June 5, 1940.
59. Ibid., July 5, 1940.
60. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1630.
61. FDR to Henry Wallace, October 15, 1943 (PSF); FDR to Sumner Welles, October 15, 1943 (PSF).
62. Public Papers, 1941 vol., 554.
63. Ibid., 1942 vol., 287-88.
64. Ibid., 1942 vol., 353.
65. Ibid., 1943 vol., 389.
66. Ibid., 1940 vol., 4.
67. Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 263-67.
68. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 105.
69. Ibid., 1943 vol., 74.
70. Ibid., 1940 vol., 672.
71. Ibid., 1941 vol., 66.
72. Ibid., 1941 vol., 193.
73. Holborn, War and Peace Aims of the United Nations, I, 113.

CHAPTER X

1. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 37-39.
2. Ibid., I, 6.
3. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1474.
4. Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 11.
5. Ibid., 70.
6. Ibid., 323; Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 264-65.
7. Press Conference, October 27, 1942.
8. Ibid., March 19, 1943.
9. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 241.
10. McIntire, White House Physician, 156.
11. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 558.
12. Press Conference, December 28, 1943.
13. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 3.
14. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 128-29.
15. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 220.
16. Freidel, Roosevelt, I, 210.
17. FDR, "Shall We Trust Japan." Asia, July, 1923, p. 526.
18. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 205.
19. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 167.
20. Ibid., 1939 vol., 198-99.
21. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 6.
22. Press Conference, November 24, 1942; Public Papers, 1942 vol., 531.
23. Rosenman, Working with Roosevelt, 376.
24. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 32.
25. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 127.
26. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 296-98.
27. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 715.
28. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 363.
29. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 664-66.
30. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 241.
31. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 31.
32. Press Conference, February 23, 1945.
33. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 604.
34. Carmichael, F.D.R., Columnist, 11720, 128-29.
35. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 108.
36. Moley, After Seven Years, 47-52; Freidel, Roosevelt, III, 356-57.
37. Schlesinger, Crisis of the Old Order, 428.
38. Hull, Memoirs, I, 141.
39. See ibid., I, chs. 26-27; Moley, After Seven Years, 196, 368-69.
40. William E. Dodd, Ambassador Dodd's Diary, 1933-1938 ( New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1941), 6.
41. Ickes, Secret Diary, III, 68.
42. Hull, Memoirs, I, 486, 747.
43. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 501, 596.
44. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 6.
45. Press Conference. March 15, 1933; ibid., January 16, 1935.
46. Ickes, Secret Diary, III, 204; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 632-33.
47. FDR, "Shall We Trust Japan." Asia, July, 1923, p. 526.
48. Carmichael, F.D.R., Columnist, 5960.
49. Hull, Memoirs, II, 987.
50. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 255-56.
51. Press Conference, January 24, 1934.
52. Press Conference, October I, 1943.
53. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1565; Public Papers, 1943 vol., 417-18; Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 341-42; Elliott Roosevelt , As He Saw It, 85-86.
54. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 341-42; McIntire, White House Physician, 230-31.
55. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 48; Stettinius , Roosevelt and the Russians, 181.
56. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28. p. 505.
57. FDR, "Shall We Trust Japan." Asia, July, 1923.
58. Carmichael, F.D.R., Columnist, 3740.
59. Ibid., 56-60.
60. Public Papers, 1928-32 vol., 854.
61. FDR to Antonio C. Gonzales, June 3, 1938 (PSF).
62. Phillips, Ventures in Diplomacy, 224.
63. Public Papers, 1938 vol., 169-75.
64. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 930-32.
65. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 549; Press Conference, October 17, 1939; U. S.
Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1939, II, 156.
66. Ickes, Secret Diary, III, 56.
67. See, for example, Press Conference, April 19, 1943.
68. Ibid., November 28, 1934.
69. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 253.
70. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 128-29.
71. Welles, Time for Decision, 50.
72. Public Papers, 1933 vol., 159.
73. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 6.
74. Public Papers, 1942 vol., 145-47.
75. Ibid., 1943 vol., 239.
76. Ibid., 1943 vol., 351.
77. Ibid., 1943 vol., 431-32.
78. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 597-98.
79. Ibid., 1941 vol., 479-80.
80. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 425-30.
81. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 1
78-80. 82. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 585.
83. Ibid., 1939 vol., 357; U. S. Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1938, II, 786.
84. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw II, 110-12.
85. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 581; Press Conference, April 5, 1945.
86. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 767-68; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 777.
87. Morgenthau, "Morgenthau Diaries," Collier's, October 18, 1947.
88. Welles, We Need Not Fail, 29-30.
89. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1500-07.
90. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1503.
91. U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 715.
92. Press Conference, May 7, 1943.
93. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45. II, 1529-30.
94. Press Conference, January 12, 1940.
95. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1511-12.
96. Public Papers, 1935 vol., 117-18.
97. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1546-47.
98. Ibid., 1928-45, II, 1471.
99. Press Conference, August 29, 1944.
100. Ibid., September 12, 1934.
101. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 339.
102. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 31.
103. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1643; U. S. Department of State, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945 ( Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1949), 143.
104. Press Conference, January 19, 1945; Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 520.
105. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 548-53.
106. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 595, 600.

CHAPTER XI

1. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 17; New York Times, March 30, 1919; Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, pp. 477, 503.
2. Ibid., 1905-28, p. 477.
3. Ibid., 1905-28, p. 503.
4. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 3; Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 14, 18.
5. Ibid., II, 14, 18, 88.
6. The complete text of this plan is In Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, Appendix I, 353-66.
7. Ibid., 362.
8. Ibid., 357-58, 365-66.
9. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 129.
10. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928), 585.
11. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 142.
12. Ibid., 1928-45, I, 213.
13. Freidel, Roosevelt, III, 250-54.
14. Hull, Memoirs, I, 311.
15. Ibid., I, 387.
16. Ibid., I, 223-28.
17. Press Conference, May 10, 1933.
18. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 16.
19. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 449-50.
20. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 103.
21. See Roosevelt. Personal Letters, 1928-45, I, 664-68 for both the notes and the above editorial comment.
22. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 70-72.
23. Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 1213.
24. Public Papers, 1937 vol., 410-11.
25. Hull, Memoirs, I, 552.
26. Ickes, Secret Diary, II, 277-78; Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 75.
27. Ibid., 181. See also Tugwell, The Democratic Roosevelt, 579-80; and Feis, Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin, 21.
28. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 178.
29. Ibid., 175; Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 4-5; Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 685-86, 794-95.
30. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 5.
31. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1366-67.
32. Churchill, Second World War, II, 441.
33. Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, 679.
34. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 175.
35. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 710.
36. Ibid., 716-17; Hull, Memoirs, II, 1643.
37. Press Conference, September 7, 1943.
38. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1446-47.
39. Press Conference, October 29, 1943.
40. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 785-86, 792.
41. Public Papers, 1943 vol., 558.
42. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 350.
43. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 179-80.
44. U. S. Department of State, Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 589.
45. Press Conference, February 23, 1945.
46. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1678.
47. Press Conference, April 18, 1940.
48. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe ( Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1948), 136.
49. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 186.
50. Ibid., 187.
51. Moley, After Seven Years, 95.
52. Stilwell, Stilwell Papers, 251.
53. FDR to Lord Mountbatten, November 8, 1943 (PSF); U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 544.
54. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 151, 154, 181; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 716.
55. Ibid., 787.
56. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 151-55.
57. Churchill, Second World War, IV, 133.
58. FDR to Lord Mountbatten, November 8, 1943 (PSF).
59. Bullitt, "How We Won the War and Lost the Peace," Life, August 30, 1948; Tully, F.D.R., My Boss, 269.
60. Davies, Mission to Moscow, 6.
61. Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, 126-27.
62. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 92-93.
63. Hull, Memoirs, I, 708-09.
64. Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect, 334.
65. Bullitt, "How We Won the War and Lost the Peace," Life, August 30, 1940.
66. Benes, Memoirs, 76.
67. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 29, 36.
68. Churchill, Second World War, VI, 215-16.
69. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 889-90.
70. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1467-71.
71. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1177.
72. Ibid., 1928-45, II, 1204-05.
73. Stilwell, Stilwell Papers, 253.
74. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 99.
75. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1365-66.
76. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 37-38; Hanson W. Baldwin, Great Mistakes of the War ( New York: Harper & Bros., 1950), 7; Eleanor Roosevelt , This I Remember, 253-54.
77. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 377-78.
78. McIntire, White House Physician, 169-70.
79. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 1387-88.
80. Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember, 315.
81. Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 28.
82. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 322.
83. McIntire, White House Physician, 219; Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 545-47.
84. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1905-28, p. 507.
85. Freidel, Roosevelt, II, 18.
86. Carmichael. F.D.R., Columnist, 64-65.
87. FDR, "Our Foreign Policy," Foreign Affairs, VI ( July, 1928), 573-77.
88. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 349.
89. Roosevelt, Personal Letters, 1928-45, II, 810.
90. Public Papers, 1939 vol., 521-22.
91. U. S. Department of State, Peace and War, 524.
92. Elliott Roosevelt, As He Saw It, 207.
93. Public Papers, 1940 vol., 551.
94. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 342-43.
95. Ibid., 1944-45 vol., 554.
96. The State Department document already cited entitled Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945 purposely omitted discussion of the development of content and ideas in the planning described and limited itself to the administrative developments of that planning.
97. Welles, Seven Decisions that Shaped History, 185.
98. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 717.
99. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1640-43.
100. Ibid., II, 1646; Benes, Memoirs, 196; Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, 785-86.
101. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 330.
102. Hull, Memoirs, II, 1679.
103. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 117.
104. Ibid., 187-88; U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 966; Press Conference, April 5, 1945. 105. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 40-41.
106. Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 33; Hull, Memoirs, II, 168182; Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 31-32; Press Conference, October 17, 1944; ibid., February 19, 1945.
107. See, for example, U. S. Department of State, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 66-67.
108. Churchill, Second World War, 357; Stettinius, Roosevelt and the Russians, 150.
109. Ibid., 21; Hull, Memoirs, II, 1700.
110. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, 381.
111. Public Papers, 1944-45 vol., 330-31, 585.


INDEX.

Air, freedom of, 147
Altruism, 52, 159
Anglo-American Caribbean Commission, 154
Antarctica, trusteeship for, 110
Appeasement, 6, 9, 81 - 86
Argentina, 90
Armaments, 7 - 10, 20 - 21, 23 - 25, 28, 31, 92 - 101, 191
Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 53
Atlantic Charter, 12, 33 - 34, 114, 117, 130, 154
Bacon, Francis, 70
Balance of power (see power politics)
Belligerency, policy of, 19
Berle, Adolf, 98
Blaine, James G., quoted, 57
Bolivar, Simon, collective security concept, 58
Brazil, Security Council seat for, 176 - 77
Brussels Conference, 59, 71
Bryan, William Jennings, 13, 102
Bullitt, William C., 179, 180
Canada, relations with United States, 65 - 66, 73
Cartels, 146 - 47
Cecil, Lord Robert, 166
Chamberlain, Neville, 6, 9
Chiang Kai-shek, 47, 112, 178
China, 18, 23, 64, 158, 178 - 79 Churches, role in international relations, 71 - 72
Churchill, Winston S., 45, 47, 77, 10 5,
106, 108, 112, 131, 177
Clark, Senator D. Worth, 57
Collective security, 28, 58, 162 - 76
Colonialism, 102 - 119
Conferences, international, 30, 64 - 65
Coolidge, Calvin, 53
Cuba, 1933 Revolution in, 54 - 55
Daniels, Josephus, 31, 102
Darlan, Admiral Jean, deal with defended, 32
Davis, Norman, 53, 71, 97 -9 8, 172
De Gaulle, General Charles, 115
Democracy, 5, 43, 121 - 28, 190
Devil theory, 6 - 7, 20, 40 - 41, 52, 76 - 91, 190
Dictatorship, 120 -2 1
Diplomacy, 59 - 67, 192
Disarmament (see armaments)
Dodd, William E., 21, 145
Dollar diplomacy, 53 - 56
Easter Island, trusteeship for, 110
Economic nationalism, 3 - 4, 56, 143 - 47, 159, 191
Education, faith in, 41 - 43
England, (see Great Britain)
Erasmus, 70
Example, principle of, 72 - 75
Exchange of persons, 59 - 60
Fordney-McCumber Tarift, 3
Foreign aid, 155 - 56
Four Freedoms, 33 - 34, 132 - 35
Fourteen Points, 34
France, 5, 6, 8 - 9, 18, 19, 20, 105 - 06, 177


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