January 4. French Indochina was granted dominion status. (By decree. Times, Jan. 4. 1941, p. 2.)
January 6. President Roosevelt recommended to Congress lend lease for the Allies and enunciated the "Four Freedoms." ("I also ask this Congress for authority and for funds sufficient to manufacture additional munitions and war supplies of many kinds, to be turned over to those nations which are now in actual war with aggressor nations.
"Our most useful and immediate role is to act as an arsenal for them as well as for ourselves. They do not need manpower, but they do need billions of dollars worth of the weapons of defense.
"The time is near when they will not be able to pay for them all in ready cash. We cannot, and we will not, tell them that they must surrender, merely because of present inability to pay for the weapons which we know they must have. "I do not recommend that we make them a loan of dollars with which to pay for these weapons–a loan to be repaid in dollars. "I recommend that we make it possible for those nations to continue to obtain war materials in the United States, fitting their orders into our own program. Nearly all their materiel would, if the time ever came, be useful for our own defense. "Taking counsel of expert military and naval authorities, considering what is best for our own security, we are free to decide how much should be kept here and how much should be sent abroad to our friends who by their determined and heroic resistance are giving us time in which to make ready our own defense.
"For what we send abroad, we shall be repaid within a reasonable time following the close of hostilities, in similar materials, or, at our option, in other goods of many kinds, which they can produce and which we need." (Congressional Record [Bound], Vol. 87, Pt. 1, pp. 44 47.)
The British Minister Without Portfolio, Arthur Greenwood, was assigned the task of study of reconstruction and war problems. ("The object will be to find practical solutions for the immediate problem of a transition from w to peace and also to outline and presently to amplify a policy for the years immediately following the war which will command the support of the nation as a whole and enable unit action to proceed in peace as in war." Times, Jan. 7, 1941, p. 15.)
January 10. German Russian agreements on barter and border matters signed at Moscow. ("The agreement regulates the trade turnover between the U. S. S. R. and Germany until Aug. 1,
268 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
1942. It provides for an amount of mutual deliveries considerably exceeding the level of the first year of operation of the agreement. . . . settling all problems connected with migration. . . . on the State frontier of the U. S. S. R. and Germany in the sector from the River Igorka to the Baltic Sea in connection with the admission of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic into the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, which took place Aug. 3, 1940." Ibid., Jan. 11, 1941, p. 8. Cf. Aug. 19, Sept. 28, 1939, Feb. 12, June 16, July 21, Aug. 25, 1940, Supra.)
January 15. Secretary of State Hull advocated H. R. 1776 (lend¬-lease bill) before House Committee on Foreign Affairs. ("The present bill sets up machinery which will enable us to make the most effective use of our resources for our own needs and for the needs of those whom, in our own self defense, we are determined thus to aid. The great problem of democracy is to organize and to use its strength with sufficient speed and completeness. The proposed legislation is an essential measure for that purpose. This bill will make it possible for us to allocate our resources in ways best calculated to provide for the security of this nation and of this continent in the complex and many sided conditions of danger with which we are, and are likely to be, confronted. Above all, it will enable us to do all these things in the speediest possible manner. And, overwhelmingly, speed is our greatest need today." Bulletin, Vol. V, No., 82, p. 89. Cf. Peace, p. 618.)
January 16. Secretary of War Stimson testified for the lend lease bill. ("Instead of being able leisurely to pick and choose and deliberately to arm ourselves, relying upon the then existing stability on the other side of the Atlantic, we are not only compelled to arm ourselves entirely by our own efforts but to do so at the very time when it is imperative that our American industry and plants should be working at top speed to furnish vital weapons of defense to Great Britain in order that she may meet the crisis which is confronting her this spring and summer, and thus preserve her fleet as a bulwark in the Atlantic Ocean." Times, Jan., 17, 1941, p. 7.)
January 17. Secretary of the Navy Knox testified for the lend lease bill. ("The struggle now going on is, fundamentally, an attempt by Germany to seize control of the sea from Great Britain. That is the reason why, from a military viewpoint, the war has so vital an interest to the United States. . . . If Germany becomes free to move across the ocean for the conquest of new territories, she most probably will move first into South America, to get hold of that great storehouse of national wealth. If the United States does not wish to face the consequences of the establishment in South America of aggressive military power, we should now prevent Germany from overturning the British sea power which holds the Nazis in Europe. . . . We need time to build ships and to train their crews. We need time to build up our outlying bases so that we can operate our fleets as a screen for our continent. . . . We need time to train our armies, to accumulate war stores, to gear our industry for defense. Only Great Britain
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 269
and its fleet can give us that time. And they. need our help to survive.
"If we fully organize the mental and material resources of the American people, we can give Britain that help and simultaneously can build a strong military defense for ourselves. The cost to us in money, effort, and sacrifice will be great but that cost will be far greater even in the immediate future should we now stand aside and let Britain fall." Ibid., Jan. 18, 1941, p. 4.)
January 19. Chancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini conferred. (". . . comprehensive exchange of views relative to the situation . . . resulted in complete agreement of mutual opinions on all questions." Ibid., Jan. 21, 1941, p. 1.)
January 21. The United States lifted the "moral embargo" on exports to Russia. ("All of the articles and materials covered by what has generally been referred to as the `moral embargo' are included in the list of articles and materials now subject to the export license system." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 83, p: 107. Cf. Feb. 19, 1940, supra.)
January 24. Marshal Pétain designated a National Council of 188. (To advise the Chief of State privately on specific matters. Times, Jan. 25, 1941, p. 6.)
January 27. Marshal Pétain decreed all high officials should be personally responsible to the Chief of State. ("Responsibility is made effective by engaging the man who accepts it to the extent of his liberty, his property, and his life." Ibid., Jan. 28, 1941, p. 10.)
Ambassador Grew telegraphed from Tokyo: (paraphrase) "A member of the Embassy was told by my . . . colleague that from many quarters, including a Japanese one, he had heard a surprise mass attack on Pearl Harbor was planned by the Japanese military forces, in case of `trouble' between Japan and the United States; that the attack would involve the use of all the Japanese military facilities. My colleague said that he was prompted to pass this on because it had come to him from many, sources, although the plan seemed fantastic." Japan, Vol. II, p. 133.
January 30. Chancellor Hitler promised a historic year for the new European order. ("On land the number of our divisions has been mightily increased and their pay increased. War experiences have been evaluated by men and officers. Work has been done and work continues unceasingly. Equipment has been improved and our enemies shall see how it was improved. "On the seas the U boat war will begin in the spring, and they will see that there, too, we have not slept. And the Air Force will also put in an appearance, and all the armed forces together will force a decision one way or another. Our production in all fields has been greatly increased. What others plan is reality to us. The German people stands behind its leaders, believing in their armed forces and ready to endure what destiny demands of it." Times, Jan. 31, 1941, p. 2.)
270 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
January 31. French Indochinese Thai armistice signed at Saigon. (Japanese mediation. Ibid., Jan. 31, 1941, p. 8.)
Under Secretary Summer Welles recommended lend lease. (". . . in my judgment, the course which is least fraught with danger, and which is most likely to make it possible for the American people to stay out of war, is for this country to increase its production of armaments to such an extent as to make it possible for us to make available to Great Britain on an ever increasing scale the armaments which she requires in order successfully to continue her war of self defense." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 84, p. 127.)
The Regional Conference of the River Plate approved a draft convention suspending most favored nation treatment for products among Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay (". . . conceding preferential treatment to the products of Bolivia and Paraguay, providing at the same time that special concessions granted for Bolivian and Paraguayan products shall not be extended to the signatory countries or to third parties . . ." Times, Feb. 1, 1941; . p. 18) and a resolution recommending study of a customs union. ("'Whereas, The interests of the countries participating in the Regional Conference of the River Plate can be conciliated in a manner that will benefit them all within an economic and commercial organization; and
"Whereas, It is indispensable to have access to permanent, markets of great consuming, capacity in order that the development of agrarian and manufacturing industries may rest on stable bases that permit production on a large scale under favorable economic conditions; and
"Whereas a permanent market of great consuming capacity can be easily achieved by combining the markets of countries participating in this conference, . . ." Ibid., p. 18.)
February 6. The Conference of the River Plate set up permanent regional headquarters in Buenos Aires. (To direct regional economic relations. Ibid., Feb. 7, 1941, p. 4.)
February 10. Britain severed diplomatic relations with Rumania. (". . . the essential development is that the German High Com¬mand is building up in Rumania all the elements of an expedi¬tionary force and has concentrated at various points large, supplies of munitions and oil fuel.
"Rumanian territory is thus being used by Germany as a military base in furtherance of her plans for prosecuting the war. These measures are being taken without a word of dissent from the Rumanian Government." Ibid., Feb. 11, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Oct. 8, Nov. 23, 1940, supra.)
February 12. Italy asked that United States consulates at Palermo and Naples be moved to Rome. (To a place not on sea coast. Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 89, p. 249. Cf. Jan. 19. supra.)
General Franco and Premier Mussolini conferred. (". . . on all problems interesting the two governments at the present historic moment." Times, Feb. 13, 1941, p. 1.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 271
February 13. King Alfonso XIII of Spain renounced his throne in favor of his son Juan. (". . . it would be to deny reality if I did not take into account the fact that Spanish opinion–that of those who have struggled and who have triumphed–is anxious for the constitution of a new Spain which is tied closely and fecundly with the spirit of the glorious past and with the eager¬ness to endow our people with the necessary capacity to realize their transcending mission in the future. . . .
"Not by my will, but due to the inexorable law of circumstances, perhaps my person would be an obstacle among those with whom I have lived and who followed, surely and with good faith, a different road. "To some I would appear as a return to a policy that did not know how to avert, or could not avert, our tragedy and the causes which provoked it.
"For others I would be a motive of remorse and embarrass¬ment. "My duty is to remove these possible obstacles. . . ." Ibid., Feb. 14, 1941, p. 6.) General Franco met Marshal Pétain. (To discuss matters re¬lating to the prosecution of the war. Ibid., p. 1.)
February 14. Chancellor Hitler conferred with Yugoslavs. (Demanded they adhere to Axis pact, permit transit of troops and munitions, grant economic cooperation and passivity to German occupa¬tion of Bulgaria. Ibid., Feb. 15, 1941, p. 2. ". . . concerning questions of mutual interest . . ." Ibid., p. 1.)
February 16. Britain mined Singapore waters. (To strengthen de¬fenses there because of concern over Far Eastern situation. Ibid., Feb. 17, 1941, p. 1.)
February 17. Turkish Bulgarian nonaggression pact signed. (". . . having reached happy results after exchanges of views several times in the past, herewith determine the meaning of their re¬spective foreign policies affecting their mutual interests and aims and thus safeguard the unspoiled confidence and friendship exist¬ing between the two neighboring countries;
"To give proof of their pact of friendship which provides that there shall be inviolate peace and sincere and eternal friendship between the Turkish Republic and the Kingdom of Bulgaria;
"Desiring to continue their policy of confidence toward each other, which policy assures the security of peace and quiet in the Balkans in a most difficult moment through mutual consideration for their security; . . ." Ibid., Feb. 18, 1941, p. 4.)
February 25. Foreign Minister Matsuoka said the white race must cede Oceania to the Asiatics. ("This region has sufficient natural resources to support from 600,000,000 to 800,000,000 people. I believe we have a natural right to migrate there." Ibid., p. 1.)
March 1. Bulgaria adhered to Axis pact. ("Upon invitation of the German government." . . . Ibid., Mar. 2, 1941, p. 38. Cf. Feb. 14, supra.)
272 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
March 4. The United States froze Bulgarian assets. (Cf. Mar. 1,. supra. Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 89, p. 251.)
March 6. Britain severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria. ("From, the nature of the German military movements in Bulgaria it is ¬clear that the German aim is to menace and, if necessary, attack Great Britain's ally, Greece. "By their agreement with the German Government the Bul¬garian Government have facilitated the realization of this German aim and, apart from other measures which they have taken, they have gone so far as to proceed in connection with it to a large¬ measure of mobilization. His Majesty's Government can only conclude from this that the Bulgarian Government, so far from only desiring to maintain neutrality in the present conflict, are ¬now prepared actively to collaborate with Germany." Times,, Mar. 6, 1941, p. 2.) The United States asked closing of Italian consulates at Newark, N. J., and Detroit, Mich., and information as to move¬ments of military, and naval personnel. (Cf. Feb. 12, supra. Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 89, p. 249.)
March 8. Japanese Ambassador, Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura dis¬paraged the view that Japan was intent on military conquest unless compelled by the policy of increasing embargoes of the United States. ("The Ambassador sought to play down the view that such military conquest was really in the mind of his Government and he then said that embargoes by this country were of increasing concern, and that he did not believe there would be any further military movements unless the policy of increasing embargoes by this country should force his Government, in the minds of those in control, to take further military action. To this I replied that. this is a matter entirely in the hands of his Government for the reason that his Government took the initiative in military expan¬sion and seizures of territory of other countries, and thereby creating an increasingly deep concern on the part of my own and other countries as to the full extent of Japanese conquest by force¬ which was contemplated; that any country, has not been at fault and none of the nations engaged in conquest have, pretended seri¬ously to charge it with any action of omission or commission in relation to the present movement of world conquest by force on the part of some three nations, including Japan . . . I proceeded to comment on Japan's line of activities and utterances by saying ¬that his country and most other countries only proclaim and practice policies of peaceful international relationships, political, economic, social, and cultural." Peace, pp. 623, 626.)
March 9. Britain rejected plan to feed the small democracies. ("Noth¬ing has since occurred to alter the view of His Majesty's Govern¬ment that it is the responsibility of the German Government to see to the material welfare of the countries they have overrun, nor to weaken their conviction that no form of relief can be devised which would not directly or indirectly assist the enemy's war effort." Times, Mar. 10, 1941, p. 6.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 273
March 11. Lend Lease Act approved by President Roosevelt to extend lend lease aid to countries whose defense is vital to that of the United States. (55 Stat., Pt. I, p. 31.) Thailand and Indochina signed peace treaty. (Because of Japanese mediation. Times, Mar. 12, 1941, p. 10.)
March, 12. Thailand and Russia exchanged notes establishing diplo¬matic relations. (Forerunner to commercial relations. Ibid., Mar. 13, 1941, p. 6.)
March 13. The United States froze Hungarian assets. (Ibid., Mar. 14, 1941, p. 6.) Germany, demanded Yugoslavia join the Axis. (Wanted access to Greece. Ibid., p. 1. Cf. Feb. 14, supra.)
March 15. President Roosevelt promised increasing aid to Allies for a total victory. ("The light of democracy must be kept burn¬ing. To the perpetuation of this light, each must do his own share. The single effort of one individual may seem very small. But there are 130 million individuals over here. There are many more millions in Britain and elsewhere bravely shielding the great flame of democracy from the black out of barbarism. It is not enough for us merely to trim the wick or polish the glass. The time has come when we must provide the fuel in ever ¬increasing amounts to keep the flame alight." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 90, p. 279. Cf. Peace, pp. 634 f. Cf. Jan. 6, 15, 16, 17, 25, 31, supra.)
March 16. Chancellor Hitler again predicted British defeat. ("The world is not here for a few people, and an order based eternally on the distinction between the haves and the have nots does not exist any more because the have nots have determined to lay claims to their portion of God's earth." Times, Mar. 17, 1941, p. 4.)
March 19. Great Lakes St. Lawrence agreement signed. (". . . for the cooperative development and utilization of the water in the Great Lakes St. Lawrence River Basin for navigation and power. . . . the construction of this project is regarded as directly associated with both the power supply and ship building phases of our national defense program, including the plan for defense of the Western Hemisphere and the determination to supply all possible aid to Great Britain, the members of the British Commonwealth, and their allies." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 91, p. 304. Cf. Aug. 18, 1940, supra.)
March 20. Under Secretary Welles confirmed report of impending German attack on Russia to the Soviet Ambassador, Constantine A. Oumansky. (He "had additional information." Peace, p. 638.)
March 21. Three Yugoslav Cabinet officials resigned. (Because of German demands. Times, Mar. 22, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Mar. 13, supra.)
274 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
March 24. Turkey and Russia issued communiqué promising each other to be neutral if either should be attacked by a third party. (". . . because statements have been published in parts of the foreign press to the effect that Russia might take advantage of difficulties in which Turkey might find herself in case of her being obliged to enter the war, and might attack Turkey." Times, Mar. 25, 1941, p, 5.)
March 25. Yugoslavia adhered to Axis pact. (". . . in the agreement between the Axis powers and the Royal Yugoslav Government the Axis power governments during this war will not direct a demand to Yugoslavia to permit the march or transportation of troops through the Yugoslav State or territory." Ibid., Mar. 26, 1941, p. 3.
"On this day on which Yugoslavia joins the tripartite pact she is doing so with the intention of assuring her peaceful future in cooperation with Germany, Italy, and Japan. Insofar as she is contributing her part to the organization of the new Europe, she is fulfilling the highest duty as much to herself as to the European community." Ibid., p. 1. Cf. Mar. 13, supra.).
March 27. British American naval air base agreement signed. ("Whereas the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, in consultation with the Govern¬ment of Newfoundland, are desirous at this time of further effectuating the declarations made on their behalf by His Excellency the Most Honourable the Marquess of Lothian, C. H., His Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, in his communication of the 2d September 1940, to the Secretary of State of the United States of America, a copy of which is set out in Annex I hereto and made a part hereof;
"And whereas it is agreed that leases in respect of the naval and air bases to be leased to the United States of America in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana, respectively; shall forthwith be executed substantially in the forms of the leases set out in Annex ,II hereto, which are hereby approved, and that a similar lease in respect of a base in the Bahamas shall be executed as soon as possible;
"And whereas it is desired to determine by common agreement certain matters relating to the lease of the said bases as provided in the communication of the 2d September 1940, and the reply thereto of the same date from the Honourable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States, set out in Annex I and made a part hereof;
"And whereas it is desired that this agreement shall be fulfilled in a spirit of good neighbourliness between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom, and that details of its practical application shall be arranged by friendly cooperation; . . ." Cf. Aug. 20, Sept. 2, 1940, supra. (65 Stat., Pt. 2, p. 1560.)
Anti-Nazi coup d'état in Yugoslavia, (King Peter II assumed power with aid of General Dusan Simovitch. "In these serious days the people of Yugoslavia felt concern at the manner in which public affairs were being handled. This lack of confidence in the state of affairs created during the last few days was manifested
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 275
with such vigor that public order was endangered. The present changes came about under the pressure of this public anxiety. There are no other reasons for the change since the accession to power of King Peter II who at once formed a Government of national union representing the views of the Serb, Croat, and Slovene peoples." Ibid., p. 349, Cf. footnote, ibid. Cf. Mar. 25, supra.)
The United States appropriated $7,000,000,000 for lend lease. (Public, No. 23, 77th Cong., 55 Stat., Pt. I p. 53.) Prime Minister Churchill promised British help to the new Yugoslav Government (". . . to defend the freedom and in¬tegrity of their country." Times, Mar. 28, 1941, p. 8) and said "the defeat of Hitler and of Hitlerism is a sufficient war aim and will open the door to every worthy peace aim." ("Every¬one knows what we are fighting about, but if you try to set forth in a catalogue what will be the exact settlement of affairs in a period which is unforeseeable, you will find that the moment you leave the area of pious platitude you will descend into the arena of heated controversy, and that would militate against efforts which we are making, and we could not, in justice to our country, take such a step." Ibid., p. 8.)
April 3. Yugoslavia ordered final mobilization. (Because of failure of Italian peace move and departure of German and Italian legations. Ibid., April 4, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Mar. 27, supra.)
April 3 4. The United States rejected German and Italian protests over the taking possession of the steamships Pauline Friedrich and Arauca. (". . . the plain provisions of our statutes . . . made it a felony for the master or any other person in charge or command of a vessel, foreign or domestic, or for any member of the crew or other person, within the territorial waters of the United States, willfully to cause or permit the destruction or injury of such a vessel or to tamper with its motive power or instrumentalities of navigation; and . . . authorize the author¬ities of this Government to take possession and control of any vessel and to remove therefrom the officers and crew when such action is deemed to be necessary to protect the vessel from damage or injury or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States."' Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 93, p. 419.)
April 4. Pro Nazi military coup d'état in Iraq. (Said to have been provoked by continuous intervention Times, Apr. 5, 1941, p. 2.) The United States asked withdrawal of Italian naval attaché ("I have the honor to state that various facts and circumstances have come to the attention of the Government. of the United States connecting Admiral Alberto Lais, Naval Attaché of the Royal Italian Embassy, with the commission by certain persons of acts in violation of the laws of the United States. "The President has reached the conclusion that the continued presence of Admiral Lais as Naval Attach of the Embassy would no longer be agreeable to this Government." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 93, pp. 420 f.)
276 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
April 5. Yugoslav Russian treaty of friendship and nonaggression signed at Moscow. (". . . inspired by friendship existing be¬tween the two countries and convinced that preservation of peace forms their common interest, . . ." Times, Apr. 6, 1941, p. 1.)
April 6. Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria attacked Yugoslavia. ("Dur¬ing the night of March 27 Yugoslavia . . . passed immediately over to the enemies of the Axis. The Italian Government followed with great attention and the greatest calm the events that led Yugoslavia to unite herself with Great Britain and Greece and become, like Greece, a base of operations for the British forces in Europe.
"In the light of this fact the Italian Government has decided to move with its military, naval, and aerial forces in close col¬laboration with those of Germany." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, pp. 554 f. Cf. "I [Hitler] have repeatedly warned of the attempt by the British to land troops in Southeastern Europe, and I have said that this constitutes a threat to the German Reich. Unfortunately this warning went unheeded by the Yugoslav nation. I have further tried, always with the same patience, to convince Yugoslav statesmen of the absolute necessity for their cooperation with the German Reich for restoration of lasting peace and order within Yugoslavia." Times, Apr. 6, 1941, p. 26. Cf. Mar. 27, Apr. 3, supra.) Official Yugoslav statement. ("The real reason for the German aggression is that Germany wanted Yugoslavia to depart from its position of neutrality she adopted in the European conflict since the beginning of the war. Unjustly attacked, Yugoslavia in defending herself against an aggressor is faithful to her history and national traditions and firmly resolved to defend her national independence, territorial integrity, and national honor. In answer to German allegations regarding the causes of this aggression, it is replied . . . that Germany is the aggressor State and Yugo¬slavia has done nothing against Germany." Times, Apr. 7, p. 5.)
"Germany attacked Greece. ("The Reich Government can no longer close their eyes to the fact that Greece is making com¬mon cause with Britain and must therefore be regarded as Germany's enemy in the present war with all the consequences that this entails." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 554.)
Message of King George of Greece to his people. ("Greeks! A new enemy this morning insulted the honour of our country. With no warning, . . . German troops attacked our frontiers. Our heroic army, . . . is already defending it with its blood. Greeks! The Greek people, who have proved to the world that they rank honour above everything else, will defend it against this new enemy to the end." Times, Apr. 7, p. 4.)
April 7. Britain severed diplomatic relations with Hungary. ("Hun¬gary has become a base of operations against the Allies." Ibid., Apr. 8, 1941, p. 7. Cf. Nov. 20, 1940, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 277
April 8. Italy requested the withdrawal of American military attaché. (Cf. Apr. 4, supra. Bulletin, Vol. IV. No. 94, p. 453.) Vice President Henry. A. Wallace said America must assume responsibility for the peace. ("We of the United States can no more evade shouldering our responsibility than a boy of eighteen can avoid becoming a man by wearing short pants. . . . Peace will bring world wide chaos unless the United States fur¬nishes positive leadership." Times, Apr. 9, 1941, p. 18.)
April 9. United States Danish agreement on defense of Greenland by the United States signed. ("Whereas: One. After the invasion and occupation of Denmark on April 9, 1940, by foreign military forces, the United Greenland Councils at their meeting at Godhavn on May 3, 1940, adopted in the name of the people of Green¬land a resolution reiterating their oath of allegiance to King Christian X of Denmark and expressing the hope that, for as long as Greenland remains cut off from the mother country, the Government of the United States of America will continue to hold in mind the exposed position of the Danish flag in Greenland, of the native Greenland and Danish population, and of established public order; and,
"Two. The Governments of all of the American Republics have agreed that the status of regions in the Western Hemi¬sphere belonging to European powers is a subject of deep con¬cern to the American Nations, and that the course of military events in Europe and the changes resulting from them may create the grave danger that European territorial. possessions in America may be converted into, strategic centers of aggression against nations of the American Continent; and
"Three. Defense of Greenland against attack by a non Ameri¬can power is essential to the preservation of the peace and security of the American Continent and is a subject of vital concern to the United States of America and also to the Kingdom of Denmark; and
"Four. Although the, sovereignty of Denmark over Greenland is fully recognized, the present circumstances for the tine being prevent the Government in Denmark from exercising its powers in respect of Greenland . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 94, p. 445. Cf. Peace, pp. 642 f. Cf. May 1, 1940, supra.)
April 10. Hungary attacked Yugoslavia. (". . . in view of the participation of Bulgaria and Hungary in the attack against Yugoslavia perpetrated by the Axis powers." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 133, p. 555. Cf. Nov. 20, 1940, Apr. 6, supra.)
President Roosevelt modified the Red Sea combat zone. (Sec. 3 (c) of, Public Res. 54 approved Nov. 4, 1939. "The President may from time to time modify or extend any proclamation issued under the authority of this section, and when the conditions which shall have caused him to issue any such proclamation shall have ceased to exist . . ." Ibid., Vol. IV, No. 94, p. 450.)
Senate Joint Resolution 7 passed, affirming and approving non¬recognition of the transfer of any geographic region in the Western Hemisphere from one non American power to another non¬-American power. ("Whereas our traditional policy has been to
278 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
consider any attempt on the part of non American powers to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as danger¬ous to the peace and safety not only of this country but of other American republics, . . ." 55 Stat., Pt. I, p. 133.)
April 12. Denmark repudiated agreement of April 9. (". . . with¬out authorization from here, and contrary to the constitu¬tion, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 95, p. 471.)
April 13. Japanese Russian five year neutrality pact signed at Mos¬cow with joint declaration regarding the frontiers of the Japanese protectorate of Manchukuo. (". . . guided by a desire to strengthen peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries, . . ." Times, Apr. 14, 1941, p. 8. Cf. Japan, Vol. II, p. 186.)
April 14. The United States continued to recognize Henrik Kauffmann as Minister of Denmark after his purported recall. (". . . you consider this action to have been taken under duress and to be invalid both from the point of view of Danish and of generally recognized common law, in view of the existing occupation of Denmark by German military forces. "My Government considers it to be the fact that the Govern¬ment in Denmark in this respect is acting under duress, . . ." (Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 95, p. 471. Cf. Apr. 12, supra.)
April 15. Bulgaria severed diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia. (". . . in view of the unwarranted and unprovoked attacks on her territory" by Yugoslav air forces and foreign elements operating from Yugoslav bases. Times, Apr. 16, 1941, p. 3. Cf. Apr. 6, supra.)
April 16. The United States presented four fundamental principles as foundation for international relations. "1. Respect for the territorial integrity and the sovereignty of each and all nations. 2. Support of the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries. 3. Support of the principle of equal¬ity, including equality of commercial opportunity. 4. Non¬-disturbance of the status quo in the Pacific except as the status quo may be altered by peaceful means.' " (For basis of informal, exploratory discussions with Japan. Peace, p. 730. Cf. Japan, Vol. II, p. 407.)
April 17. Yugoslav Army surrendered. (Capitulation. Times, Apr. 18, 1941, p. 1.)
April 19. Britain sent troops to Iraq. (Under clause IV of the Anglo-¬Iraqi treaty: ". . . in the event of an imminent menace of war the contracting parties will immediately confer together on the necessary measures for defense. "The aid of the King of Iraq in event of war or imminent menace of war, will consist in furnishing to His Britannic Majesty, on Iraq territory, all facilities and assistance in his power, includ¬ing the use of roads, rivers, ports, airdromes, and means of communications." Ibid., Apr. 20, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 4, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 279
April 20. President Roosevelt announced an exchange of defense articles with Canada. (". . . measures by which the most prompt and effective utilization might be made of the productive facilities of North America for the purposes both of local and hemisphere defense and of the assistance which in addition to their own programs both Canada and the United States are rendering to Great Britain and the other democracies.''' Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 96, p. 494. Cf. Aug. 18, 1940, supra.)
April 21. Greece signed armistice with Germany. ("The armistice that has been signed with the Germans without authority appears to have been precipitated by exhaustion from an unequalled victorious struggle of six months and more. It is the result of crushing pressure exerted on our gallant army." Times, Apr. 24, 1941, p. 3. Cf. Ibid., p. 4.)
April 22. Two thousand American troops arrived in Philippines. (Reinforcements. Ibid., Apr. 23, 1941, p. 13. Cf. Jan. 27, Feb. 25, supra.)
April 23. Greece severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria. (After Bulgarian troops had occupied Thrace. Ibid., Apr. 24, 1941, p. 4,) Greece surrendered to Germany and Italy. ("The High Com¬mand of the Greek Army in Epirus and Macedonia represented by General Tsolakoglou turns to the Italian High Command of Armed Forces in Albania and the High Command of German Forces in Greece to ask that unconditional surrender of the Greek Army in Epirus and Macedonia be accepted." Ibid., p. 4.)
April 24. Bulgaria declared state of war in those areas of Greece and Yugoslavia occupied by Bulgarian troops. (Cf. Apr. 15, 23, supra. Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 96, p. 555.)
Australian detachments reinforced. Singapore. (To strengthen defenses against surprise from land or sea. Times, Apr. 25, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Feb. 16, supra.)
April 26. China and the United States signed a monetary stabilization accord. ("This is a cooperative agreement between friendly nations that are working together in many ways to preserve the basic freedoms. Apart from the obvious purposes of stabilizing the relationship between the currencies concerned, it will be an important factor in fostering the welfare of the participating countries." Ibid., Apr. 26, 1941, p. 7.)
The Inter American Financial and Economic Advisory Com¬mittee passed resolution recognizing right of the republics to requisition foreign flag vessels in their ports. ("Whereas,
"Subparagraph (D) of Article 2, Resolution IV, on economic cooperation, of the Meeting of Foreign Ministers of the American Republics at Panama, in 1939 charged the Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Committee with studying and proposing to the Governments the most effective measures for mutual cooperation to lessen or offset dislocations in the trade of the American republics resulting from the present war;
280 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
"The commerce of the American republics has normally been carried on in large measure in merchant vessels of non-American polders, many of which are not available for such trade because of the increasing rate of destruction of the means of maritime transportation by the belligerent nations, the consequent increased diversion of such vessels to other trades, and the prolonged stationing by their owners of a large number of such vessels in American ports interrupting their normal commercial activities; and
"The resulting shipping shortage has prejudiced and is preju¬dicing the commerce of and among the American republics, creating a very grave problem for the fundamental right of the nations of the Americas to preserve the trade which is essential. to their normal existence;
"Some of the American republics have already been forced to take steps with a view to remedying this situation; and "Bearing in mind the recommendations of the Inter-American Neutrality Committee, which were adopted by Resolution I of the Second Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics at Habana in July 1940 . . ." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 97, p. 531.)
May 1. Britain withdrew from Greece. (When it became obvious that the resistance of the Greek army to German invasion was at an end, the Government of Greece requested that the entire contingent which had been sent to its help should be withdrawn from Greece. Times, May 1, 1941, pp. 1, 4.)
May 2. British began fighting in Iraq. (Iraq Government held British reinforcements violated pact. Ibid., May 2, 1941, p. 1. ) Occupied oil fields. (Ibid., May 3., 1941, p. 2. Cf. Apr. 19, supra.)
May 3. Germany and Italy divided and annexed Slovenia. By decree. ("Contemporary history in all parts of the globe, which this war has confirmed, demonstrates the impossibility for very Small nations to lead an autonomous life. They are fatally destined too enter into the sphere of influence of this or that great neighboring power." Ibid., May 4, 1941, p. 43.)
May 6. Emperor Hailie Selassie regained Ethiopian throne. (Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 100, p. 635. Cf. Times, May 7, 1941, p. 5. Cf. May 2, 1936, supra.)
Secretary of War Stimson advocated use of Navy to convoy to Britain. ("The world is facing so great a crisis that all of our efforts must be turned toward the defense of our nation's safety. . . . our own self defense requires that limits should be put to lawless aggression on the ocean. The President has said that we must not allow the steps which we have already taken to become ineffective." Ibid., p. 14.)
May 9. French Indochinese-Thai peace treaty signed at Tokyo with Japanese guarantee of new borders. (Japanese mediation. Ibid., May 9, 1941, p. 8. Cf. Jan. 31, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 281
Russia withdrew recognition from German occupied states of Belgium, Norway, and Yugoslavia. (Patching up differences with Germany. Ibid., May 10, 1941, p. 1.)
May 10. Flight of Rudolph Hess to Scotland. (Ibid., May 13, 1941, p. 1.)
May 12. Yugoslavia protested the creation of the "Independent State of Croatia." ("It is, of course, a cardinal principle of interna¬tional law that military occupation of territory in the course of hostilities does not change the juridical status of the territory thus occupied and that occupation by enemy armies provides no legal basis for the establishment of a new juridical status within. such territory." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 102, p. 682. Cf. May 3, supra.)
Japan presented a proposal for a general settlement between the United States and Japan. (". . . it is the sincere desire of both Governments that the incidents which led to the deteriora¬tion of amicable sentiment among our peoples should be prevented from recurrence and corrected in their unforeseen and unfortunate consequences.
"It is our present hope that, by a joint effort, our nations may establish a just peace in the Pacific; and by the rapid consumma¬tion of an entente cordiale [amicable understanding], arrest, if not dispel, the tragic confusion that now threatens to engulf civilization." Peace, p. 657.)
Russia recognized rebel government of Iraq. (To improve rela¬tions with Germany and avert German attack on Ukraine and Caucasus. Times, May 13. 1941, p. 2. Cf. Apr. 19, Supra.)
May 13. Prime Minister Robert G. Menzies of Australia told America the war was America's business. (". . . for parliamentary liberty and the ordered rights of self-government are our joint and several heritage. . . . it is essential for the world not only that tyranny should be defeated but that it should be defeated quickly before the scars made by it are too deep and too last¬ing. . . ." Ibid., May 14, 1941, p. 6.)
May 14. France accepted new German terms for economic collabora¬tion. (Ibid., May 15, 1941, p. 1. "France can, surmount her defeat and save her rank as a European and colonial power in the world." [Unofficial translation.] Rice, p. 68.) Germany proclaimed the northern part of the Red Sea a zone of military operations. (Result of war developments in the Eastern Mediterranean. Times, May 14, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 10, supra.)
May 15. President Roosevelt rebuked France for collaboration amounting to an alliance. ("The people of the United States can hardly believe that the present Government of France could be brought to lend itself to a plan of voluntary alliance, implied or otherwise, which would apparently deliver up France and its colonial empire, including French African colonies and their Atlantic coasts, with the menace which that involves to the peace and safety of the Western Hemisphere." Ibid., May 16, 1941, pp. 1, 4.)
282 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
May 16. Iceland severed union with Denmark. (Because the latter was unable to exercise governmental functions under the law of 1918 and the former did not wish to prolong the treaty. Ibid., May 20, 1941, p. 11. Cf. Apr. 24, May 9, 1940, supra.) Iraq and Russia exchanged notes to establish diplomatic and consular relations. (Ibid., May 18, 1941, p. 6. Cf. May 12, supra.)
May 18. Italy planned to restore Croatian monarchy. ("By virtue of further. agreements entered into with representatives of the so called `Independent State of Croatia' that `state,' previously established on Yugoslav territory by the military authorities of occupation, has been declared by the Italian Government to be a hereditary monarchy under Italian protection, thus establish¬ing in effect if not in name an annexation of these territories by the Italian Government." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 102, p. 683. Cf. May 12, supra.)
May 21. Germany requested that foreign diplomatic agents evacuate Paris by June 10. (Paris area was regarded as "an extended zone of operations." Times, May 22, 1941, p. 1.) S. S. Robin Moor sunk by German submarine. (Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 103, p. 716.)
May 22. Britain warned France of the danger of collaboration with Germany. ("If the Vichy government, in pursuance of their declared policy of collaboration with the enemy, take action or permit action detrimental to our conduct of the war or designed to assist the enemy's war effort, we shall naturally hold ourselves free to attack the enemy wherever he may be found, and in so doing we shall no longer feel bound to draw any distinc¬tion between occupied and unoccupied territory in the execution of our military plans." Times, May 23, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Oct. 21, 1940, May 14, supra.)
May 23. Admiral Darlan tells why France chose collaboration freely. (For "ameliorations of the consequences of defeat and of the conditions of the armistice. . . . It is necessary for her to choose between life and death. The Marshal and the Govern¬ment have chosen life." Ibid., May 24, 1941, p. 4. Cf., Rice, p. 69. )
May 27. President Roosevelt proclaimed unlimited national emergency. (". . . what started as a European war has developed, as the Nazis always intended it should develop, into a world war for world domination.
"Adolf Hitler never considered the domination of Europe as an end in itself. European conquest was but a step toward ultimate goals in all the other continents. It is unmistakably apparent to all of us that, unless the advance of Hitlerism is forcibly checked now, the Western Hemisphere will be within range of the Nazi weapons of destruction. . . The war is approaching the brink of the Western Hemisphere itself. It is coming very close to home." 55 Stat., Pt. II, p. 1647.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 283
May 29. The United States arranged to train British flyers. (To operate American planes sent abroad under lend lease. Times, May 30, 1941, p. 5.)
Foreign Secretary Eden said international social security was Britain's prime policy after the war. ("For irrespective of the nature of the political settlement, Continental Europe will end this war starved and bankrupt of all foods and raw materials which she was accustomed to obtain from the rest of the world.
"She will have no means, unaided, of breaking the vicious circle. She can export few goods until she has first received the necessary raw materials. Wasteful wartime cultivations in many lands will leave agriculture almost as weak as industry. Thus Europe will face vast problems of general demobilization with a general lack of the necessary means to put men to work." Ibid., May 30, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Mar. 25, supra.)
May 31. British-Iraqi armistice signed at Baghdad. ("The hostil¬ities for which there is no longer any reason, will be ended as soon as the commission has received assurances that the complete independence of the country and the honor of the Army mil be guaranteed." Ibid., June 1, 1941, p. 1. Cf. May 2, supra.)
June 2. Chancellor Hitler met Premier Mussolini at Brenner. (To discuss "the political situation." Ibid., June 3, 1941, p. 1.) United States announced policy on French possessions in the Western Hemisphere. (In answer to suggestion for their acqui¬sition. Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 103, p. 720.)
June 5. Secretary of State Hull condemned French collaboration with Nazis. ("Such action would not only be yielding priceless rights and interests beyond the requirements of a harsh armistice but it would at once place France in substantial political and military subservience and would also make her, in part, the instrument of aggression against many other peoples and nations. This could only be utterly inimical to the just rights of other countries, to say nothing of its ultimate effects on the liberties, the true interests, and the welfare of the people of France." Ibid., No. 102, p. 682. Cf. Peace, p. 674. Cf. May 15, supra.)
June 6. United States authorized acquisition of idle foreign merchant ships. (Under Public Law 101 and Executive Order No. 8771 for urgent needs of commerce and national defense. Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 102, p. 701.)
June 8. British and Free French troops entered French Syria and Lebanon. (Cf. May 22, supra. ". . . with the object of eliminating German personnel and influence from certain areas in which they are securing a dominating position through continued infiltration." Times, June 9, 1941, p. 2.)
June 10. Admiral Darlan urged French to conquer their illusions and consent to sacrifices. ("For France not to fulfill loyally the armistice conditions and thereby give the conqueror reason to denounce her would be tantamount to suicide for France and the empire. . . . The signature of a definite peace remains
284 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
difficult as long as the major problems that are the basis for present conflict are unsolved . . . the government's duty is to act so as to create an atmosphere favorable to the establishment of an honorable peace, . . . If that atmosphere cannot be created, I fear a disastrous peace for France. That fear is not founded on impression; it is founded on certainty. . . . that path is the sole path of salvation for your country." Ibid., June 11, 1941, p. 10. Cf. Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 203, p. 718.) Secretary of State Hull reassured Portugal as to its islands in the Atlantic. (Because of protest of May 30. Ibid., p. 718.)
June 12. Russian Japanese trade treaty signed. (To stimulate trade. Ibid., June 12, 1941, p. 10.) Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Bel¬gium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxemburg, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Free France resolved to fight until victory. ("There can be no settled peace and prosperity so long as free peoples are coerced by violence into submission to domination by Germany or her associates or live under the threat of such coercion; . . ." Ibid., June 13, 1941, p. 4.)
June 13. Secretary of State Hull said the French people and those of the United States had a common interest in preventing the former becoming cobelligerents of Hitler. ("The general adoption of Hitlerism would set the world back five to ten centuries." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 103, p. 716.)
June 14. President Roosevelt ordered Axis funds in the United States frozen. ("In view of the unlimited national emergency declared by the President, . . . The Executive Order is designed, among other things, to prevent the use of the financial facilities of the United States in ways harmful to national defense and other American interests, to prevent the liquidation in the United States of assets looted by duress or conquest, and to curb subversive activities in the United States." Ibid., p. 718. See also Vol. 6, Federal Register, p. 2897.)
June 15. Croatia signed agreement with Axis respecting its interests. ("Croatia gives its full adherence to the principles and reasons which inspire the rulers of Italy, Germany, and Japan in consti¬tuting a united front for creation of a new order in the European and Asiatic world." Times, June 16, 1941, p. 3. Cf. May 12, 18, supra.)
June 16. United States requested withdrawal of German and Italian consular staffs by July 10. ("It has come to the knowledge of this Government that agencies of the German Reich in this country, including German consular establishments, have been engaged in activities wholly outside the scope of their legitimate duties. These activities have been of an improper and unwarranted character. They render the continued presence in the United States of those agencies and consular establishments inimical to the welfare of this country." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 104, p. 743. Cf. May 21, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 285
June 17. United States and Canada set up Joint Economic Commit¬tees. (". . . to study and to report to their respective govern¬ments on the possibilities of (1) effecting a more economic, more efficient, and more coordinated utilization of the combined re¬sources of the two countries in the production of defense require¬ments (to the extent that this is not now being done) and (2) reducing the probable post-war economic dislocation consequent upon the changes which the economy in each country is presently undergoing." Ibid., p. 747. Cf. Aug. 18, 1940, Mar. 19, Apr. 20, supra.)
June 18. German Turkish ten-year friendship pact signed at Ankara. (". . . inspired by a desire to place relations between the two countries on a basis of mutual confidence and sincere friend¬ship, . . ." Times, Tune 19, 1941, p. 4.) Japan discontinued negotiations with the Netherland Indies for economic agreement. ("The reply of the Netherlands of June 6 is not only very unsatisfactory but asserts in connection with the question of the acquisition of essential materials and goods, to which Japan attaches importance, that their quantities may be decreased at any time to suit their own convenience." Ibid., June 19, 1941, p. 8.)
June 19. Germany and Italy requested withdrawal of United States consular staffs from territories under their control by July 15. (Retaliation. Cf. June 16, supra. ". . . the attitude and activi¬ties of American consular officers in Italy have given rise to grave developments." Ibid., June 20, 1941, p. 6. ". . . the conduct of American consular authorities and the American Travel Agency, the American Express Company, for a long time occasioned heavy objections, . . ." Ibid., p. 8.)
June 20. President Roosevelt denounced the sinking of the S. S. Robin Moor by Germany. ("The total disregard shown for the most ele¬mentary principles of international law and of humanity brands the sinking of the Robin Moor as the act of an international out¬law." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 104, p. 741. Cf. Peace, p. 675.)
The United States ordered Italian consulates closed. (". . . it is obvious that the continued functioning of Italian consular establishments in territory of the United States would serve no desirable purpose." Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 104, p. 743. Cf. June 16, supra.)
June 21. Uruguay proposed to treat American Republics engaged in war as non-belligerents. (". . . to give new content and defini¬tion to the policy of inter¬-American solidarity." Ibid., Vol. V, No. 106, p. 8.)
Secretary of State Hull presented a counterproposal to Japan. (Cf. May 12, supra. For a "joint, declaration for the resumption of traditional friendly relations." Peace, p. 677.)
June 22. Germany invaded Russia. (". . . the German Ambassador in Moscow, on behalf of his Government made the statement to me as People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs to the effect that the
286 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
German Government had decided to launch war against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in connection with the con¬centration of Red Army units near the eastern Government fron¬tier." [Russian statement.] Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 556. "Waiting would be a crime against Germany.
"For weeks the Russians have been committing frontier viola¬tions. Russian planes have been crossing the frontier again and again to prove that they are the masters. On the night of June 17 and again on June 18 there was large patrol activity." [Ger¬man statement.] Times, June 22, 1941, p. l. "Now that the attack on the Soviet Union has already been committed, the Soviet Government has ordered our troops to repulse the preda¬tory assault and to drive German troops from the territory of our country." [Russian statement.] Ibid., June 23, 1941, p. 10. Cf. Ibid., p. 6, and Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop's statement Ibid., p. 4. Cf. Mar. 20, supra.)
Russia attacked Finland. ("Citizens, centuries have shown that on the site on which fate has placed this nation, permanent peace cannot be achieved. The pressure of the East is always upon us." [Finnish statement.] Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 556. "Immediately after the outbreak of war between Germany and the Soviet Union four days ago, the integrity of our frontiers was violated on numerous occasions by the Soviet Union, in conse¬quence of which we presented energetic protests, but without any result. . . . . When the Finnish Parliament, on March 21, was discussing the documents relating to the Peace Treaty, the Soviet Government presented in Moscow a strong protest against the project, declaring wholly without cause that it was in conflict with the Peace Treaty. . . .
Italy declared war on Russia. (Cf. June 2, supra. Times, June 23, 1941, p. 5.)
Rumanians entered Bessarabia. (". . . to liberate and re¬cover Rumanian national patrimony overrun, without justification by the unprovoked aggression of Communist Russia." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 556. Cf. June 28, 1940, supra.) Slovakia severed diplomatic relations with Russia. (Axis tie. Times, June 23, 1941, p. 5. Cf. Nov. 24, 1940, supra.) Prime Minister Churchill pledged British aid to Russia. ("Any man or State who fights against Nazism will. have our aid. Any man or State who marches with Hitler is our foe. This applies not only to organized States but to all representatives of that vile race of Quislings who make themselves the tools and agents of the Nazi regime. against their fellow countrymen and against. the lands of their births. These Quislings, like the Nazi leaders themselves, if not disposed of by their fellow countrymen, which would save trouble, will be delivered by us on the morrow of victory to the justice of the Allied tribunals. That is our policy and that is our declaration." Ibid., p. 8.)
June 24. President Roosevelt released Russian credits and promised American aid. (Policy of giving material assistance to any country fighting Germany. Ibid., June 25, 1941, p. 1.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 287
June 25. President Roosevelt refused to apply neutrality statute to Russia. (To aid Russia by keeping Vladivostok open. Ibid., June 26, 1941, p. 1.)
Sweden granted passage of one division of German troops from Norway to Finland. ("Our chief interest is to maintain our liberty and stay outside of the conflict, and the government came to the conclusion that the only way to do so was to accept the German-Finnish demand." Ibid., p. 5.)
June 26. Finland announced a state of war with Russia. "To reduce this pressure, destroy the eternal menace, and secure a happy and peaceful life for coming, generations, we now embark upon our defensive battle." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 556. "Since the Moscow treaty and up to the new aggression launched against Finland in June 1941, the attitude of Russia toward Finland made it fully clear that the Russian policy tends to the enslav¬ing of Finland. The final aim of Russian policy has always been the destruction of Finland's independence." Times, June 29, 1941, p. 17.)
Helsinki bombed by Soviet planes. (President Ryti declared that in this fight "we are not alone; Great Germany, . . had decided to wage war against the Soviet and other nations have joined Germany. Russia in this task is facing a united front stretching from the White Sea to the Black Sea." Times, June 27, pp. 1, 4; cf. also Finland, pp. 100 105, and Times, June 29, p. 17.)
Soviets denounced Finland. (Moscow broadcast denounced Finland, adding, "The Finnish militarists have flagrantly violated the Soviet-Finnish peace treaty. The rulers of Finland have begun military operations against our country . . . The Soviet Union has fulfilled the peace treaty conscientiously. But the rulers of Finland, under orders from Hitler, have plunged the long-suffering Finnish people into a war against the Soviet Union. Scoring the most elementary of international laws and the vital interests of their own people, the Finnish warmongers have again launched a campaign against the Soviet Union. . . . The ignoble rulers of Finland have not learned any lesson from the campaign of the winter of 1939 and 1940. They are asking for another, a final, lesson, and that lesson the Finnish perpetrators of fascism will get." Times, June 27, p. 4.) Soviet press denounced Finns. (Pravda "bitterly denounced the `treachery of Finland's puppet government in violating the Soviet Finnish pact and entering the war'." Times, June 29, p. 17.)
June 27. Denmark severed diplomatic relations with Russia. (Ex¬pressed its disapproval of Russia. Ibid., June 28, 1941, p. 2. Cf. June 22, supra: Russian invasion of Finland.)
Hungary declared war on Russia. (". . . because of the aerial attacks." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 556.)
June 28. Albania announced state of war with Russia. (Italian protectorate. Ibid., p. 556.)
288 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
June 30. France severed diplomatic relations with Russia. ("The French Government had become convinced that diplomatic and consular agents of the Soviet in France were exercising influence affecting the security of the State." Times, July 1, 1941, p. 6.)
July 1. Iceland and the United States exchanged letters on the defense of Iceland. (". . . it is imperative that the integrity and inde¬pendence of Iceland should be preserved because of the fact that any occupation of Iceland by a power whose only too clearly apparent plans for world conquest include the domination of the peoples of the New World would at once directly menace the security of the entire Western Hemisphere." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 107, p. 18. Cf. Apr. 24, May 9, 1940, May 18, supra.)
Germany, Italy, and the other Axis states recognized Wang¬ Ching wei regime in China. (An effort to keep Japan in line and save Japan's "face." Times, July 2, 1941, pp. 1, 5.)
July 3. Denmark requested the withdrawal of United States consular staffs by July 15. (Because an "impossible" situation existed. Ibid., July 4, 1941, p. 4. Cf. June 19, supra.)
July 7. The United States occupied Iceland. "In accordance with the understanding so reached, forces of the United States Navy have today arrived in Iceland in order to supplement, and eventu¬ally to replace, the British forces which have until now been stationed in Iceland in order to insure the adequate defense of that country. . . . [to prevent] the occupation by Germany of strategic outposts in the Atlantic to be used as air or naval bases for eventual attack against the Western Hemisphere. . . . Assurance that such outposts in our defense frontier remain in friendly hands is the very foundation of our national security and of the national security of every one of the independent nations of the New World. . . . in order to forestall any pincers movement undertaken by Germany against the Western Hemi¬sphere. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 106, pp. 15 f. Cf. July 1, supra. Cf. Peace, p. 686.)
July 8. Japan told the United States it had not so far considered the possibility of fighting Russia. (". . . they do not at present feel compelled to modify their policy towards the U. S. S. R. except to the extent of their natural desire not to give rise to misunder¬standings to their allies. It is their sincere hope that they will be able to pursue a course of policy carefully calculated at once to serve their own interests and to preserve the spirit of mutual trust among the allies, while maintaining good relations with the U. S. S. R." Ibid., p. 692.)
July 11. British French Syria Lebanon armistice signed at Acre. (". . . bringing about the end of hostilities. . . ." Times, July 16, 1941, p. 4. Cf. June 8, supra.)
July 12. British Russian mutual-assistance agreement signed at Moscow. (Putting on paper previous oral promises. Ibid., July 14, 1941, pp. 1, 3. Cf. June 22, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 289
July 18. Russian-Czechoslovakian agreement signed. (Resuming diplomatic relations, promising mutual aid, creating a Czech legion. Ibid., July 19, 1941, p. 3.)
July 21. The United States and Britain agreed to exchange representa¬tives between the United States and India. (In consultation with India. Bulletin, Vol. V, No: 109, p. 74.)
France accepted Japanese demands for military control of French Indochina. (They were "in no position to resist the pres¬sure exercised upon them." Ibid., p. 71. ". . . France sees no inconvenience in permitting Japan temporarily to occupy military bases in Indochina on the condition there is no menace to the Indo¬chinese integrity and French sovereignty. Japan has made no territorial demands. We merely want to protect Indo-china." Times, July 24, 1941, p. 1. "France definitely recognized the preeminent position of Japan in Indo-china . . ." Ibid., July 27, 1941, p. 12. ". . . one of the two reasons for the step taken was to assure to Japan an uninterrupted source of supply of rice and other food stuffs, which Indochina afforded, as well as an uninter¬rupted supply of other raw materials which they required from that region. He stated that Japan believed that de Gaullist French agents were stirring up trouble in southern Indo-china and that of course there were many Chinese agitators in that region and the Japanese Government feared that at some time in the near future a situation might develop which would cut off Japan's supplies from those territories.
"The Ambassador then said that the second reason for the occu¬pation undertaken was the need for military security. He stated that Japan believed that certain foreign powers were bent upon a policy of encirclement of Japan and that the step taken was purely a precautionary measure in the nature of a safeguard.
"The two situations which the Ambassador had set forth above, he stated, had occasioned great `uneasiness' to Japan." Peace, pp. 693 f.)
July 23. Acting Secretary of State Summer Welles told Ambassador Nomura there was no basis for pursuing further the conversations between Japan and the United States. (Cf. July 21, supra. ". . . the United States could only assume that the occupation of Indochina by Japan constituted notice to the United States that the Japanese Government intended to pursue a policy of force and of conquest, and, second, that in the light of these acts on the part of Japan, the United States, with regard to its own safety in the light of its own preparations for self-defense, must assume that the Japanese Government was taking the last step before proceeding upon a policy of totalitarian expansion in the South Seas and of conquest in the South Seas through the seizure of addi¬tional territories in that region.
"This Government could not see that there was any fact or factual theory upon which Japan could possibly fill Indo-china with Japanese military and other forces for purposes of defending Japan. The only consequent alternative was to regard the occupation of Indo-china by Japan as being undertaken because of the Japanese realization of its value to Japan for purposes of offense against the South Sea area." Peace, p. 696.)
290 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
July 24. The United States denounced action of Japan in French Indochina. (". . . the action of Japan is undertaken because of the estimated value to Japan of bases in that region primarily for purposes of further and more obvious movements of conquest in adjacent areas.
"In the light of previous developments, steps such as are now being taken by the Government of Japan endanger the peaceful use by peaceful nations of the Pacific. They tend to jeopardize the procurement by the United States of essential materials such as tin and rubber which are necessary for the normal economy of this country and the consummation to them of our defense program." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 109, pp. 71 f. Cf. Times, July 25, 1941, p. 5. Cf. Peace, p. 699.) President Roosevelt proposed to obtain from China, Britain, the Netherlands, the United States, and Japan a neutralization agree¬ment for French Indochina if Japan would withdraw her forces. (". . . he still wished to seize every possible opportunity of preventing the creation of a situation between Japan and the United States which could only give rise to serious misunderstandings between the two peoples. . . ." Ibid., p. 701.)
July 25. The United States froze Japanese assets. (". . . To prevent the use of the financial facilities of the United States in trade between Japan and the United States in ways harmful to national defense and American interests, to prevent the liquidation in the United States of assets obtained by duress or conquest, and to curb subversive activities in the United States." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 109, p. 73. Cf. Peace, p. 705.)
The United States froze Chinese assets. ("At the specific request of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and for the purpose of helping the Chinese Government . . . with a view to strengthening the foreign trade and exchange position of the Chinese Government. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 109, p. 73. Cf. Peace, p. 705.)
July 26. Britain froze Japanese assets. (Retaliation for Japan's impending occupation of land, sea, and air bases in South Indo¬china. Times, July 26, 1941, p. 5.)
Britain denounced commercial agreements with Japan. (To supplement freezing of credits. Ibid., July 27, 1941, p. 13. Cf. July 26, 1939, supra.)
President Roosevelt nationalized the armed forces of the Philippines for the duration of the American emergency. ("Under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution of the United States, by Section 2 (a) (12) of the Philippine Independence Act of March 24, 1934 (48 Stat. 457), and by the corresponding provision of the Ordinance appended to the Con¬stitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and as Com¬mander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, . . ." Vol. 6, Federal Register, p. 3825.)
July 29. The United States issued its first list of blocked nationals. ("The chief effect of the publication of the list of blocked na¬tionals is to deny the benefits of inter-American trade to persons who have hitherto been using large profits to finance subversive
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 291
activities aimed at undermining the peace and independence of the Western Hemisphere. . . . The issuance of the proclaimed list, marking persons who are contributing to these anti-American activities, is but another step in blocking the efforts of those who have sinister designs on the Americas." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 110, p. 99.)
Franco-Japanese protocol signed at Vichy. ("Taking into consideration the present international situation; "Recognizing in consequence that should the security of French Indo-china be menaced, Japan would have reason to consider the general tranquility in East Asia and its own security endangered.
"Renewing on this occasion the engagements undertaken, on the part of Japan to respect the rights and interests of France in East Asia, in particular, the territorial integrity of French Indochina, and the sovereign rights of France in all parts of the Union of Indochina, and on the part of France to conclude in regard to Indochina no agreement or understanding with a third power which envisages political, economic, or military cooperation of a character directly or indirectly opposed to Japan; . . ."
July 30. Polish-Russian agreement for cooperation signed at London. (". . . by virtue of which normal relations have been renewed between the two countries." Bulletin, , Vol. V, No. 119, p. 245. Cf. July 12, 18, supra.) The United States recognized the Czechoslovakian Government in exile at London. ("In furtherance of its support of the national aspirations of the people of Czechoslovakia, . . ." Ibid., No. 110, p. 88.)
July 3l. Bulgaria incorporated parts of Yugoslavia. (". . . the Ger¬man military authorities have allowed the Bulgarian army to take possession of certain southern and eastern parts of Yugoslav national territory." Ibid., No. 129, p. 511. Cf. Apr. 6, 15, 24, May 12, supra.)
August 1. The United States embargoed export of aviation oil. (". . . in the interest of national defense." Times, Aug. 2, 1941, p. 1. Bulletin, , Vol. V, No. 110, p. 101. Cf. July 31, 1940, supra.)
August 2. United States-Russian exchange of notes on economic as¬sistance. (". . . for the purpose of strengthening the Soviet Union in its struggle against armed aggression. This decision has been prompted by the conviction of the Government of the United States that the strengthening of the armed resistance of the Soviet Union to the predatory attack of an aggressor who is threatening the security and independence not only of the Soviet Union but also of all other nations is in the interest of the national defense of the United States." Ibid., No. 111, p. 109. Cf. June 24, supra.)
292 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
August 4. France indicated it would refuse military facilities to the
Axis in North Africa. ("In Syria we had to do with plain aggression by England without an ultimatum and without forewarning. We had an army which we could hope to supply with reinforce¬ments and materials and which, in fact, resisted thirty-one days.
"In Indochina on Aug. 30, 1940, we had to recognize the preponderant position of Japan in the Far East and on that account gave it military facilities. America did not react at that moment.
"Now Japan tells us enemy concentrations were threatening Indochina. At the moment Indochina is cut off from the homeland. We could not send reinforcements there. Hence we accepted Japanese military precautions through the Kato agree¬ment. This situation is not found in any other part of what is left of the French Empire and particularly in Africa." Times, Aug. 5, 1941, p. 1.)
August 6. Japan presented a counterproposal on withdrawal from French Indochina on its own terms. (Cf. July 24, supra.) ("As the United States Government has nevertheless manifested cer¬tain anxiety over the situation in regard to French Indo-china, the Japanese Government, with a view to dispelling any such mis¬giving, has instructed me to transmit a proposal and to enter into negotiations in strict confidence and on an `off record' basis. The proposal is intended to serve as a reply in a way to the suggestion, made by the President on July 24 during his conversation with me [Nomura], and to provide a fresh basis for Japanese American understanding. . ." Peace, p. 705.)
August 8. Ambassador Nomura asked Secretary of State Hull whether a meeting could be arranged between "the responsible heads of the two governments, say in Honolulu, ". . . as was suggested in the original Japanese proposal." Ibid., p. 708.
August 9. The United States resolved to confer at once with Britain in the event of further Japanese movements south. ("The Ambassador made some inquiry about the amount of aid this Government might give in case Singapore or the Dutch East Indies should be attacked." Ibid., p. 710.)
August 12. British Russian declaration of aid to Turkey if attacked by European power. ("It is known that, after the treacherous attack of Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union, the Germans con¬ducted and are still conducting malicious propaganda against the Soviet Union intended inter alia to bring about discord between the Soviet Union and Turkey.
"In view of the fact that the propaganda being extensively conducted by the Germans has become even stronger at present; and considering that in the present international situation it is opportune that an exchange of views should take place between the Soviet and Turkish Governments on the subject of the rela¬tions between the Soviet Union, Turkey, and Great Britain, . . ." Times, Aug. 13, 1941, p. 3.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 293
Marshal Pétain announced full collaboration with Germany.
("Our relations with Germany have been defined by an armis¬tice convention the character of which could only be provisional. Dragging out this situation makes it that much harder to support in so far as it governs relations between two great nations." Ibid., p. 4. Cf. Rice, p. 69.)
August 14. Declaration by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill (later called "Atlantic Charter")
First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other;
Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;
Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;
Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic, prosperity;
Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of secur¬ing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security;
Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;
Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance;
Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandon¬ment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the dis¬armament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peace loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments. (". . . to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 112, p. 125. Cf. Peace, pp. 718 f.)
August 15. The United States and Britain requested opportunity to send their representatives to Moscow. ("In order that all of us may be in a position to arrive at speedy decisions as to the apportionment of our joint resources, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 112, p. 135. Cf. Peace, p. 712.)
294 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
August 16. Anglo Russian commercial treaty signed. (On exchange of goods, credit, and clearing. Times, Aug. 18, 1941, p. 1. Cf. July 12, supra.) Anglo-Russian note warned Iran to evict its German com¬munity. (". . . an excessively large German colony. "Germans resident in Iran, as in other countries, have long been subjected to organized discipline by the German Nazi party. As in other neutral countries, German authorities have endeavored to pursue in Iran a policy of infiltration by sending their agents to mingle with and replace the resident German community. . . . It has been pointed out that the presence of large numbers of German technical experts and agents in various parts of Iran, employed in factories and public works as well as on roads and railroads and in many other important posts, cannot fail to constitute a serious danger to the mainte¬nance of Iranian neutrality. . . . Underground measures taken by the German Government to spread German influence in Iran and to establish eventually German control and domina¬tion of that country obviously constitute a serious danger for the Iranian Government themselves, as well as for British inter¬ests in Iran, but they are also a danger to neighboring coun¬tries. . " Ibid., Aug. 26, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Ibid., Aug. 18, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 4, June 8, supra.)
August 17. President Roosevelt consented to renew informal discus¬sions for agreement with Japan. (". . . to discuss means for bringing about an adjustment of relations between the United States and Japan and . . . to ascertain whether there existed a basis for negotiations relative to a peaceful settlement covering the entire Pacific situation." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 537. Cf. Peace, pp. 715 f. Cf. July 23, supra.)
August 18. Pan American Airways System agreed to ferry aircraft from the United States to the Middle East via west Africa. (". . . . to speed delivery of planes direct to the British forces . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 113, p. 147.) Russia made peace overtures to Finland. (To negotiate new treaty granting territorial concessions to Finland. Ibid., No. 124, p. 362. Cf. June 22, supra.)
August 24. Prime Minister Churchill promised unhesitating aid to the United States if hopes for a peaceful settlement with Japan failed. (Because of ". . . the deep underlying unities which stir and, at decisive moments, rule the English-speaking peoples through¬out the world." Times, Aug. 25, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Aug. 9, supra.)
August 25. British-Russian troops occupied Iran. ("The reply of the Iranian Government to the communications addressed to them Aug. 16 show that they are not prepared to give adequate satis¬faction to the recommendations of His Majesty's Government and the Soviet Government in this important matter.
"It is now clear that further friendly representations to the Iranian Government on the same lines as hitherto would serve
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 295
no useful purpose and His Majesty's Government must have recourse to other measures to safeguard their essential interests. . . .This state of affairs demands immediate adoption by the Soviet Government of all measures which it is not only entitled to take in full accordance with Article VI of the Treaty of 1921 but which it is also obliged to take in the interests of her defense. . . .
"Unfortunately the Iran Government declined to take measures appropriate to putting a halt to the trouble and disorders insti¬gated by German agents, thereby encouraging German agents in their criminal activity. "In consequence of this, the Soviet Government has been forced itself to take the necessary measures. . ." Ibid., Aug. 26, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Aug. 16, supra.)
Chancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini met. (". . . all mili¬tary and political questions that affect the development and duration of the war were intensively discussed. . . . The conversations were permeated by the unalterable determina¬tion of both peoples and their leaders to continue the war to a victorious conclusion. The new European order that will emerge from this victory as far as possible will remove the causes that in the past have given rise to European wars. . . . "The destruction of the Bolshevist danger and plutocratic exploitation will create the possibility of fruitful, peaceful, and harmonious collaboration by all the peoples of the European continent in the political as well as in the economic and cultural spheres." Ibid., Aug. 30, 1941, p. 3.)
August 26. The United States planned to send military mission to China. ("The function of the mission will be to study, in collab¬oration with Chinese and other authorities, the military situation in China, the need of the Chinese Government for materiel and materials; to formulate recommendations regarding types and quantities of items, needed; to assist in procurement in this country and in delivery in China of such materiel and materials; to instruct in the use and maintenance of articles thus provided; and to give advice and suggestions of appropriate character toward making lend-lease assistance to China as effective as possi¬ble in the interest of the United States, of China, and of the world effort in resistance to movements of conquest by force." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 114, p. 166. )
August 27. Premier Konoye invited President Roosevelt to meet with him "to discuss from a broad standpoint all important problems between Japan and America covering the entire Pacific area, and to explore the possibility of saving the situation." ("That the two nations should fall in the worst of relations at this time would mean not only a disaster in itself, but also the collapse of world civilization. Japan is solicitous for the maintenance of the peace of the Pacific and the peace of the world and she desires therefore to improve Japanese American relations." Peace, pp. 721 f. Cf. Aug. 8, supra.)
296 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
August 28. Japan in note to the United States desired "to pursue courses of peace in harmony with the fundamental principles to which the people and Government of the United States are com¬muted." (To give, "broad assurances of its peaceful intent, including a comprehensive assurance that the Japanese Govern¬ment has no intention of using without provocation military force against any neighboring nation." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 537. Cf. Peace, p. 724. Cf. Apr. 16, supra.)
The Iranian Premier, Ali Furanghi, ordered the Army to cease fire. (". . . in pursuance of the peace loving policy of His Majesty, [Iran] is issuing orders to all armed forces of the country to refrain from any resistance so that the causes for bloodshed and disturbance of security shall be removed and public peace and security assured." Times, Aug. 29, 1941, p. 3.) The Inter-American Financial and Economic Advisory Com¬mittee adopted and made effective a plan to use foreign merchant vessels in American ports. (In the interest of Inter-American commerce. Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 114, p. 165.)
September 1. President Roosevelt pledged every effort to defeat Germany. (". . . our fundamental rights–including the rights of labor–are threatened by Hitler's violent attempt to rule the world." Ibid., No. 115, p. 177. Cf. June 20, supra.)
September 2. The United States granted large loan to Mexico. (For cooperation for military and economic defense of the hemisphere. Times, Sept. 3, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Mar. 11, supra.)
September 3. The United States negotiated currency stabilization agreements with Mexico, Colombia, and Ecuador. (Economic war against Germany. Ibid., Sept. 4, 1941, p. 10.)
President Roosevelt "gave the Japanese Ambassador replies to the message and the statement received from the Ambassador on August 28. In formulating his replies, the President could not overlook the attendant circumstances and developments. Because of these circumstances and developments, the President and his consultants felt that, to ensure any hope of the success of a meeting between the President and the Prime Minister, the achievement of a prior meeting of minds on basic principles was a necessary condition precedent. Hence, the President in replying expressed a 'desire to collaborate with the Japanese Prime Minister to see whether there could be made effective in practice the program referred to by the Japanese Government in its message of August 28 and whether there could be reached a meeting of minds on fundamental principles which would make practical a meeting such as the Japanese Minister had proposed. . . . At no time, then, or later, did the Govern¬ment of the United States reject the Japanese proposal for a meeting; it strove hard to bring about a situation which would make the holding of such a meeting beneficial." Japan, Vol. II, p. 347.
September 4. The United States extended lend-lease aid to Poland. (". . . the gallant resistance of the forces of the Government of Poland is `vital to the defense of the United States.' " Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 115, p. 181. Cf. Mar. 11, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 297
German submarine tried to torpedo American destroyer Greer. ("`. . . en route to Iceland with mail'. . . . She is similar to the fifty ships which were traded to the British Navy for leases of naval and air bases in British possessions. She was painted a dark gray like most war vessels. Her flag might, therefore, be the only thing to distinguish her from the ships of her type which are hunting submarines for the British Navy." Times, Sept. 5, 1941, pp. 1, 4.)
September 6. Japan subscribed to the four principles of President Roosevelt [See April 16, supra] and presented proposals for a basis of discussion (Japan, Vol. II, p. 604. Cf. Sept. 3, supra. "The Prime Minister hopes that as a result of the commitments which the Japanese Government is prepared to assume . . . a rational basis has been established for a meeting between the President and himself." Peace, pp. 733, 735 f.)
September 9. Iran accepted British-Russian armistice terms. (Times, Sept. 10, 1941, p. 8. Cf. Aug. 25, supra.)
September 10. Britain furnished memorandum on policy of distribution and export of lend-lease material. (Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 116, pp. 204 ff.)
Germans imposed martial law on Oslo. (Trade unions had planned a general strike. Times, Sept. 11, 1941, p. 1.)
September 11. President Roosevelt submitted report on lend-lease $7,000,000,000 appropriation to Congress. (Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 122, pp. 311 f. Cf. Mar. 27, supra.)
President Roosevelt announced shoot on sight order to United States Navy in American defense waters. (Because of the incidents of the U. S. S. Greer September 4, the S. S. Panaman, and the S. S. Sessca, August 17, and the S. S. Steel Seafarer September 6. "It is the Nazi design to abolish the freedom of the seas and to acquire absolute control and domination of the seas for themselves.
"For with control of the seas in their own hands, the way can become clear for their next step–domination of the United States and the Western Hemisphere by force. . . .
"It is clear to all Americans that the time has come when the Americas themselves must now be defended. A continuation of attacks in our own waters, or in waters which could be used for further and greater attacks on us, will inevitably weaken American ability to repel Hitlerism. . . .
"This is the time for prevention of attack." Ibid., No. 116, pp. 194-196. Cf. Peace, pp. 739, 742.)
Russia warned Bulgaria against allowing its territory to be used as a basis of attack by Germany and Italy. (". . . the attitude and actions of the Bulgarian Government in relation to the Soviet Union are disloyal and do not correspond to the atti¬tude and activity of a State maintaining normal relations with the Soviet Union." Times, Sept. 12, 1941, p. 10.)
September 13. Iran ordered departure of Axis diplomats. (Per agreement of September 9, supra. Ibid., Sept. 14, 1941, p. 14.)
298 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
September 16. Syria was proclaimed an independent nation. ("Free France acting in agreement with her ally, Great Britain, has undertaken to terminate the mandate and grant Syria the status of an independent sovereign State and to guarantee the new State by treaty." Ibid., Sept., 17, 1941, p. 3. Cf. Sept. 9, 1936, supra.)
Riza Shah Pahlevi of Iran abdicated. (At approach of British and Russian forces near his capital. Ibid., p. 1.)
September 22. Britain demanded Finland end war with Russia. (To avoid being regarded as belligerent enemy. Ibid., Sept. 24, 1941, p. 1. Cf. June 25, supra.)
The United States removed embargo on export of arms to Cuba. (". . . the conditions ,in Cuba which prompted the issu¬ance of the proclamation of June 29, 1934, have ceased to exist, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 118, p. 236.)
September 23. Japan again urged meeting between President Roose¬velt and Premier Konoye. (". . . the holding of a meeting such as suggested would be of great value in counteracting the influence of the pro-Axis elements in the Japanese Government and in providing support for those elements desiring peaceful relations with the United States." Peace, p. 746. Cf. Aug. 8 and 28, supra.)
September 24. Free French National Council announced. (With political aims: recognition as government in exile. Times, Sept. 24, 1941, p. 5.
"Considering that the situation resulting from the state of war continues to prevent every meeting and all free expression of the national representation;
"Considering that the Constitution and laws of the French Republic have been and remain violated, throughout the Metro¬politan territory and in the Empire as much by the action of the enemy as by the usurpation of the authorities who collaborate with him;
"Considering that multiple proofs establish that the great majority of the nation, far from accepting a regime imposed by violence and treason, see in the authority of Free France the expression of its desire and its will;
"Considering that by reason of the growing importance of the territories of the French Empire and those under French man¬date as well as of the French armed forces which rallied to con¬tinue the war at the side of the Allies against the invader of the Fatherland, it is important that the authorities of Free France be enabled to exercise, in fact as well as provisionally, the normal attributes of public power." [Unofficial translation.] Rice, pp. 152 f.)
September 25. Italy reoccupied demilitarized zone in Croatia. (To secure her Adriatic flank. Times, Sept. 26, 1941, p. 1. Cf. May 18, supra.).
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 299
September 27. Japan presented a second proposal for resumption of friendly relations. (Cf. May 12, June 21, supra. Peace, p. 746. )
September 28. Nazis declared state of emergency in Bohemia, Moravia. (". . . irresponsible elements in the service of Europe's enemies" had committed acts antagonistic to the Reich, were endeavoring to stir up the people against Germany. Times, Sept. 29, 1941, p. 1.)
September 29. United States-British missions conferred in Moscow. (To determine Russian defense needs. Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 124, p. 364.) Japan a fourth time urged meeting with President Roosevelt. (". . . if nothing came of the proposal for a meeting between the chiefs of our two Governments it might be difficult for Prince Konoye to retain his position and that Prince Konoye then would be likely to be succeeded by a less moderate leader." Peace, pp. 751 ff . Cf. Aug. 8, Aug. 28, Sept. 24, supra.)
October 1. British-American Mission decided to grant Russian re¬quests for matériel. ("The Soviet Government is supplying Great Britain and the United States with large quantities of raw materials which are urgently needed by those countries. . . . it is the determination of the three Governments to establish, after the final destruction of Nazi tyranny, a peace which will give all countries an opportunity to live in security on their own territory without knowing either fear or want." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 124, p. 365.)
Secretary Knox spoke in behalf of freedom of the seas. ("There can be provided no rule of law in the world, unless the great high¬ways of the nations, the lanes of the seven seas, are controlled by powers which are peace minded, justice loving, and lacking in any, desire for, selfish aggrandizement. In the pursuit of these objectives there must be a disinterested purpose to keep the highways of the sea free from bandits. And in the pursuit of such an ideal we must not lose sight of, nor neglect, a proper and legitimate devotion to American security.
"Our safety and our prosperity in the world of the future lies in a stern insistence upon the principle of the freedom of the seas, the assurance of equal opportunity for world trade; and the pro¬viso that sea power shall not be made the instrument of selfish aggression. . . . This freedom of the seas, which means free commercial intercourse between nations in times of peace and the ability, of the scattered democracies of the world to aid each other in time of war, is absolutely essential to the survival of democracy in a world where, for years to come, autocracy may challenge its existence." Times, Oct. 2, 1941, p. 4.)
October 2. The United States asked clarification of Japan's intentions on troop withdrawal from China and French Indochina and steps Japan proposed to take to meet the difficulties arising out of the European war. ("It is believed that a. clear cut manifestation of Japan's intention . . . would be most helpful in making
300 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
known–in particular to those who might be inclined to be criti¬cal–Japan's peaceful intentions and Japan's desire to follow courses calculated to establish a sound basis for future stability and progress in the Pacific area." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 539. Cf. Peace, p. 760. Cf. Sept. 6, supra.)
October 3. Secretary of State Hull asked Finland whether she would be content with territory regained or whether she would fight on to aid Germany against Russia and the Allies. ("That question, which is of the greatest importance to my country without con¬templating the slightest injustice to Finland and her best inter¬ests, relates to the future safety of the United States and of all peaceful countries in the world; . . . my country is expending and is ready to expend 15 or 25 or 40 or 75 billions of dollars to aid in resisting .and suppressing Hitler and Hitlerism; . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 124, p. 363. Cf. Sept. 22, supra.)
October 4. Lend lease agreements concluded with Brazil, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Paraguay. (Ibid., No. 122, p. 313.)
October 6. The United States requisitioned eighteen planes bought by Peru. (". . . in the interests of national defense." Ibid., p. 314. Cf. Aug. 15, supra.)
October 7. Finland refused to stop war with Russia. ("Finland wages her defensive war free from all political obligations, but grateful that she need not fight alone this time. . . . "Finland cannot understand how Great Britain, with whom Finland wished and wishes to retain peaceful relations, could regard herself, merely because Finland on this occasion is not alone in fighting the Soviet Union, as forced to treat her as an open enemy." Times, Oct. 8, 1941, p. 4.)
October 9. President Roosevelt asked arming of American-flag ships engaged in foreign commerce. ("Through these years of war, we Americans have never been neutral in thought. We have never been indifferent to the fate of Hitler's victims. And, increasingly, we have become aware of the peril to ourselves, to our democratic traditions and institutions, to our country, and to our hemisphere. . . . In the Neutrality Act are various crippling provisions. The repeal or modification of these pro¬visions will not leave the United States any less neutral than we are today, but will make it possible for us to defend the Ameri¬cas far more successfully, and to give aid far more effectively against the tremendous forces now marching towards conquest of the world. . . . The practice of arming merchant ships for civilian defense is an old one. . . . We are faced not with the old type of pirates but with the modern pirates of the sea who travel beneath the surface or on the surface or in the air destroying defenseless ships without warning and without provision for the safety of the passengers and crews. . . . We cannot permit the¬ affirmative defense of our rights to be annulled and diluted by sections of the Neutrality Act which have no realism in the light of unscrupulous ambition of madmen." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 120, pp. 257 ff. Cf. Peace, pp. 762 765. Cf. Sept. 11, Oct. 1, Supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 301
October 13. Secretary of State Hull spoke on behalf of arming Ameri¬can flag ships engaged in foreign trade. ("It is our right to arm our vessels for purposes of defense. That cannot be questioned . . . since section 6 of the Neutrality, Act was adopted, entirely new conditions have developed. . . . The new conditions have been produced by the Hitler movement of world invasion. Hitler is endeavoring to conquer the European and African and other continents, and he therefore is desperately seeking to control the high seas. To this end he has projected his forces far out into the Atlantic with a policy of submarine lawlessness and terror. This broad movement of conquest, world-wide in its objectives, places squarely before the United States the urgent and most important question of self defense. . . . The intent of these attacks is to intimidate this country into weakening or abandoning the legitimate defenses of the hemisphere by retreat¬ing from the seas. . . . The problem is to set up as swiftly as possible the most effective means of self defense. The principle is that the first duty of an independent nation is to safeguard its own security. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 121, pp. 292 f.)
October 16. Manchukuo Outer Mongolian border talks concluded at Harbin. (Assisted by Russian and Japanese advisers. Times, Nov. 3, 1941, p. 6.)
October 17. U. S. S. Kearney was attacked. (Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 123, p. 341.)
October 18. General Hideki Tojo became Prime Minister of Japan: (Prince Konoye's Government resigned. Oct. 16. Japan, Vol. II, p. 689 n. "The Secretary's [Hull's] memorandum of October 2 [supra] which had been handed to the Japanese Ambassador in Washington had been a great disappointment to the Konoye Cabinet and the impression had been created inside the Cabinet that the road had been blocked to any hopes that the present conversations could be successfully concluded. Prince Konoye about a week ago had decided to resign in view of the internal situation in Japan. . . . No Japanese civilian statesman will undertake the task in which Prince Konoye has failed and con¬sequently the succeeding Cabinet must be headed by an Army officer and will he composed primarily of military men." Ibid., p. 690. See also, Ibid., p. 691.)
October 19. Afghanistan consented to ejection of Axis nationals. (British Russian request. Times, October 20, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Aug. 16, supra.)
October 22. Rumania denounced Vienna pact with Hungary. (To recover ceded portion of Transylvania. Ibid., Oct. 23, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Aug. 30, 1940, supra.)
October 25. Assistant Secretary Berle spoke on the Nazi plan for a Church of Germany. ("It is said that this sort of thing may go on in Europe, but that it cannot affect America. But it so hap¬pens that we have long known that the Nazi group in Germany
302 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
planned to conquer the entire world. It is not easy for Ameri¬cans to realize that any group of people could seriously under¬take world conquest, or that by any possibility they could carry it out. "Yet, the fact is that they have planned it; and it is known to everyone who has had any contact with German affairs. "The fact also is that they probably can carry it out unless there is resolute determination on the part of the remaining free nations to stop that conquest:" Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 123, p. 349.)
October 27. President Roosevelt spoke of Nazi designs on South America and all religions. ("This map makes clear the Nazi design not only against South America but against the United States itself. . . . All of us Americans, of all opinions, are faced with the choice between the kind of world we want to live in and the kind of world which Hitler and his hordes would impose upon us." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 123, p. 342. Peace, pp. 769 f.)
October 30. President Roosevelt offered Russia $1,000,000,000 credit without interest payments, the return to begin five years after the war's end and to be completed in a ten year period. ("In an effort to obviate any financial difficulties immediate arrange¬ments are to be made so that supplies up to one billion dollars in value may be effected under the Lend Lease Act." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 124, p. 365.)
November 1. The United States pledged aid for reconstruction of devastated and occupied countries and for international economic rehabilitation. (Relief of human needs offered little room for differences. Times, November 2, 1941, p. 33.)
November 3. Ambassador Grew warned the United. States that Japan might "resort with dangerous and dramatic suddenness to meas¬ures which might make inevitable war with the United States." (". . . underestimating Japan's obvious preparations to imple¬ment a program in the event the alternative peace program fails, would be short sighted. Similarly it would be short sighted for American policy to be based upon the belief that Japanese preparations are no more than saber rattling, merely intended to give moral support to the high pressure diplomacy of Japan." Peace, p. 775.)
November 4. Czechoslovakia, Greece, Poland, and Yugoslavia con¬cluded an agreement for a post war bloc. (To create a buffer against Germany and facilitate reconstruction as part of interna¬tional economic rehabilitation. Times, Nov. 4, 1941, p. 15.)
November 6. President Roosevelt told the International Labor Organization that the United States had begun post war planning. (". . . to achieve permanent cures–to help establish a sounder life. "To attain these goals will be no easy task. Yes; their ful¬fillment will require `the fullest cooperation between all nations in the economic field.' We have learned too well that social
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 303
problems and economic problems are not separate watertight compartments in the international any more than in the national sphere. In international as in national affairs, economic policy can no longer be an end in itself. It is merely a means for achieving social objectives.
"There must be no place in the post war world for special privilege for either individuals or nations." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 124, pp. 359 f. Cf. Jan. 6, supra.)
November 7. Secretary of State Hull warned the United States Cabinet that relations with Japan were extremely critical. (Cf. Nov. 3, supra. Peace, p. 136.)
November 10. Prime Minister Churchill again promised British decla¬ration of war with Japan "within the hour" should America become so involved. (". . . every preparation to defend British interests in the Far East and to defend the common cause now at stake has been and is being made." Times, Nov. 11, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Aug. 24, supra.)
November 12. Finland again rejected the United States suggestions that she make peace with Russia. Ibid., Nov. 13, 1941, p. 2. Cf. Oct. 3, 7, supra.)
November 13. President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Hull urged repeal of sections 2, 3, and 6 of the Neutrality Act. (". . . the effect of failure [to repeal] . . . Our own position in the struggle against aggression would be definitely weakened, not only in Europe and in Asia, but also among our sister republics in the Americas." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 125, p. 379. "It is my [Hull's] judgment that in the light of existing conditions the passage of this bill is absolutely essential to our national defense. These conditions are completely different from those existing at the time the Neutrality Act was passed; they present an entirely new problem of danger and of methods for dealing with it." Ibid., p. 380.)
November 17. Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo said an amicable conclusion of Japan's negotiations with the United States was by no means impossible (". . . if the Government of the United States are, on the one hand, as genuinely solicitous for world peace as are the Imperial Government, and on the other under¬stand Japan's natural requirements and her position in East Asia and consider the situation as it exists there in the light of realities." Times, November 17, 1941, p. 6); but Japan would face any threat to its empire or compromise of its prestige with firm resolve. (". . . there is naturally a limit to our conciliatory attitude." Ibid., p. 6.)
Ambassador Kurusu told President Roosevelt Germany had not requested Japan to fight. (". . . she was serving a desir¬able purpose without doing so, . . ." Peace, p. 790.)
Sections 2, 3, and 6 of the Neutrality Act of 1939 repealed by Public Law 294. (Bulletin, Vol. V , No. 125, p. 379. Cf. Peace, p. 787.)
304 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Ambassador Grew warned the United States of the inability of the Embassy to warn of Japanese attack. ("I take into account the probability of the Japanese exploiting every possible tactical advantage, such as surprise and initiative." Ibid., p. 788. Cf. Nov. 3, supra.)
November 18. Special emissary Kurusu intimated Japan might do something to "outshine" the Axis Pact. (". . . he could not say that Japan would abrogate the Tripartite Pact . . . he desired to emphasize that Japan would not be a cat's-paw for Germany, that Japan's purpose in entering into the Tripartite alliance was to use it for Japan's own purposes, that Japan entered the Tripartite Pact because Japan felt isolated." Ibid., pp. 794, 796.)
November 19. United States Mexican agreement on expropriation, of March 17, 1938, supra, signed. (". . . with reference to com¬pensating the nationals of the United States of America whose properties, rights, or interests in the petroleum industry in the United Mexican States were affected by acts of expropriation or otherwise by the Government of Mexico subsequent to March 17, 1938." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 126, p. 401. ". . . desirous of finding practical solutions for a number of problems of mutual interest, . . ." Ibid., p. 400. Cf. Times, Nov. 20, 1941, p. 4. Cf. Nov. 12, 1938, supra.)
November 20. New Japanese proposals given to the United States. (In answer to United States note of Oct. 2, supra. Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 540. Cf. President's message, Ibid., p. 533. Cf. Peace, pp. 800 f. The Japanese Ambassador said Japan had "never pledged itself to a policy of expansion.")
November 2l. The United States agreed to pay Iceland for fish and oil sent to Britain. (British lend lease aid. Times, Nov. 22, 1941, p. 1.)
November 22. Secretary of State Hull told Japan there might be relaxation of freezing. (Secretary of State Hall "said that he had called in the representatives of certain other governments concerned in the Pacific area and that there had been a discussion of the question of whether things (meaning Japanese peaceful pledges, et cetera) could be developed in such a way . . . these representatives were interested in the suggestion and there was a general feeling that the matter could all be settled if the Jap¬anese could give us some satisfactory evidences that their inten¬tions were peaceful." Peace, pp. 802 ff.)
November 24. The United States occupied Dutch Guiana [Surinam] in agreement with The Netherlands and Brazil. ("The bauxite mines in Surinam furnish upwards of 60 percent of the require¬ments of the United States aluminum industry, which is vital to the defense of the United States, the Western Hemisphere, and the nations actively resisting aggression." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 127, p. 425. Cf. May 9, 11, 1940, supra.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 305
The United States revoked export licenses to French North Africa, Spain, and Tangier. (To induce France to refuse open collaboration with Germany. Times, Nov. 25, 1941, p. 1.)
The United States granted lend lease aid to Free France. ("For the purposes of implementing the authority conferred upon you as Lend Lease Administrator by Executive Order No. 8926, dated Oct. 28, 1941, and in order to enable you to arrange for lend lease aid to the French Volunteer Forces (Free French) by way of retransfer from His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom or their allies, I hereby find that the defense of any French territory under the control of the French Volunteer Forces (Free French) is vital to the defense of the United States." Ibid., p. 1.)
November 26. Anti Comintern Pact of Nov. 25, 1936, renewed for five years by Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungary, Spain, Man¬chukuo, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Rumania, Slo¬vakia, and Nanking regime in China. (". . . used by Hitler solely as an instrument to wage a war of conquest and domina¬tion against free peoples, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 127, pp. 434 f. ". . . recognizing that international agreements made by them to ward off activity of the Communist International have proved themselves in the best possible manner and, in the con¬viction that united interest of their countries further demand their close cooperation against a common enemy, . . ." Times, Nov. 26, 1941, p. 12.)
Secretary of State Hull warned United States Army and Navy officials of imminent Japanese surprise attack. ("There was practically no possibility of an agreement being achieved with Japan." Peace, p. 144. Cf. Nov. 7, 17, supra.)
November 26. The independence of Lebanon was proclaimed. (By Free French. Times, Nov. 27, 1941, p. 11. Cf. Nov. 13, 1936, Sept. 16, supra.)
The United States offered a plan of a broad but simple settle¬ment covering the entire Pacific area as a counter proposal to Japan. ("The proposals which were presented by the Japanese Ambassador on November 20 contain some features which, in the opinion of this Government, conflict with the fundamental prin¬ciples which form a part of the general settlement under consideration and to which each Government has declared that it is committed. The Government of the United States believes that the adoption of such proposals would not be likely to contribute to the ultimate objectives of insuring peace under law, order, and justice in the Pacific area, and it suggests that further effort be made to resolve our divergences of views in regard to the practical application of the fundamental principles already men¬tioned." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 129, p. 462. Cf. Peace, p. 813: Mr. Kurusu said this was tantamount to end of negotiations. "When they reported our answer to their Government it would be likely to throw up its hands." Ibid., p. 808.)
306 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
November 28. Secretary of State Hull told Finland he was not sure to what extent "Finnish policy is a menace to all America's aims for self defense." (". . . every act of the Finnish Government since the delivery of its note has confirmed our apprehensions that it is fully cooperating with the Hitler forces." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 127, pp. 434 f.)
Secretary of State Hull again warned United States officials of imminent Japanese attack. (Cf. Nov. 25, supra. Peace, p. 144.)
November 29. Premier Tojo said American and British exploitation of Asiatic peoples must be purged with vengeance. ("Nothing can be permitted to interfere with this sphere because this sphere was decreed by Providence." Times, Nov. 30, 1941, p. 1. Cf. Nov. 3, 1938, supra.)
The United States warned Britain of impending Japanese attack. (". . . the diplomatic part of our relations with Japan was virtually over . . ." Peace, p. 816.)
Finland incorporated military gains from Russia restoring former border. ("Our security can be achieved only by territorial means. The only hope for us is in moving the frontiers eastward.
"The only way to solve the problem of Eastern Karelia is to keep it occupied by Finnish troops." Times, Nov. 30, 1941, p. 35.)
December 1. Marshal Pétain and General Goering reaffirmed Franco¬-German collaboration at St. Florentin. (France gave Germany naval and air bases in North Africa for release of war prisoners and reduction of occupation costs. Ibid., Dec. 5, 1941, p. 1.)
Ambassador Kurusu said the Japanese felt they must surrender or fight the United States. (". . . the Japanese people believe that the United States wants to keep Japan fighting with China and to keep Japan strangled." Peace, p. 822.)
December 2. The United States asked Japan for reasons for increasing its forces in Indochina. ("It was my clear understanding that by the terms of the agreement–and there is no present need to discuss the nature of that agreement–between Japan and the French Government at Vichy that the total number of Japanese forces permitted by the terms of that agreement to be stationed in Indochina was very considerably less than the total amount of the forces already there.
"The stationing of these increased Japanese forces in Indochina would seem to imply the utilization of these forces by Japan for purposes of further aggression, since no such number of forces could possibly be required for the policing of that region. . . . because of the broad problem of American defense. I should like to know the intention of the Japanese Government." [Presi¬dent Roosevelt in note handed to Japanese envoys by Under Secretary Welles.] Peace, p. 823 f.) Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, pp. 540 f.
Japanese Cabinet was reorganized. (Because of "the deterio¬rating international situation." Times, Dec. 3, 1941, p. 4.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 307
December 5. Japanese reply to query of Dec. 2: Troop movements in French Indochina were precautionary measures. ("As Chinese troops have recently shown frequent signs of movements along the northern frontier of French Indochina bordering on China, . . ." Cf. ". . . the Japanese troops . . . have been reinforced . . ." Peace, p. 828.)
December 6. President Roosevelt sent message to the Japanese Emperor asking troop withdrawal from French Indochina. ("Developments are occurring in the Pacific area which threaten to deprive each of our nations and all humanity of the beneficial influence of the long peace between our two countries. . . . During the past few weeks it has become clear to the world that Japanese military, naval, and air forces have been sent to Southern Indo¬china in such large numbers as to create a reasonable doubt on the part of other nations that this continuing concentration in Indochina is not defensive in its character. . . the people of the Philippines, of the hundreds of Islands of the East Indies, of Malaya, and of Thailand itself are asking themselves whether these forces of Japan are preparing or intending to make attack in one or more of these many directions. . . . It is clear that a continuance of such a situation is unthinkable." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 129, p. 465. Cf. Peace, pp. 829 f.)
Britain declared war on Finland, Hungary, and Rumania. ("No satisfactory replies having been received from the Finnish, Hungarian, and Rumanian Governments to notes addressed to them last week," as to ending wars with Russia. Times, Decem¬ber 6, 1941, p.1. "The Finnish Government's reply showed no disposition to respond to this overture nor have they ceased to pursue aggressive military operations on territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, an ally of Great Britain, in the closest collaboration with Germany.
"The Finnish Government have sought to contend that their war against Soviet Russia does not involve participation in the general European war. This contention His Majesty's Government find it impossible to accept." Ibid., Dec. 7, 1941, p. 19. "The Hungarian [Rumanian], Government have for many months been pursuing aggressive military operations on territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, an ally of Great Britain, in the closest collaboration with Germany, thus participating in the general European war and making substantial contribution to the German war effort." Ibid., p. 19.) Australia, Britain, the Netherlands Indies, and the United States completed defensive precautionary measures. (In event of a Pacific conflict. Ibid., p. 1.)
The United States signed lend lease agreement with Bolivia. (Ibid., p. 47.)
December 7. Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, at 1:20 p. m. [Washington time] and also occupied the International Settlement at Shanghai. (Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 129, p. 474.)
Japanese reply rejecting United States note of Nov. 26 was subsequently delivered to Secretary Hull at 2:15 p. m. [Washington time]. ("Obviously it is the intention of the American
308 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Government to conspire with Great Britain and other countries to obstruct Japan's efforts toward the establishment of peace through the creation of a new order in East Asia, and especially to preserve Anglo American rights and interests by keeping Japan and China at war. This intention has been revealed clearly during the course of the present negotiation. Thus, the earnest hope of the Japanese Government to adjust Japanese-¬American relations and to preserve and promote the peace of the Pacific through cooperation with the American Government has finally been lost." Ibid., p. 470. Cf. Peace, p. 838.)
"As soon as Secretary Hull had finished reading this note he turned to the Japanese Ambassador and said:
" `I must say that in all my conversations with you (the Japanese Ambassador) during the last nine months I have never uttered one word of untruth. This is borne out absolutely by the record. In all my fifty years of public service I have never seen a docu¬ment that was more crowded with infamous falsehoods and dis¬tortions infamous falsehoods and distortions on a scale so huge that I never imagined until today that any Government on this planet was capable of uttering them.' " Japan, Vol. II, p. 787.
December 8. Declaration of war by The Netherlands and The Nether¬lands East Indies against Japan. ("In view of Japan's aggres¬sion against two powers with whom The Netherlands maintain particularly close relations, aggression directly threatening vital Netherlands interests . . " Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, pp. 558 f.)
Canada declared war on Japan. (Ibid., p. 558.)
Britain declared war against Japan. ("On the evening of December 7th His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom learned that the Japanese forces, without a previous warning either in the form of a declaration of war or of an ultimatum with a conditional declaration of war, had attempted a landing on the coast of Malaya and had bombed Singapore and Hong Kong. "In view of these wanton acts of unprovoked aggression, com¬mitted in flagrant violation of international law and particularly of Article I of the Third Hague Convention relative to the opening of hostilities, to which both Japan and the United Kingdom are parties, . . ." Commons, Vol. 376, col. 1358.)
The United States declared a state of war with Japan. ("Whereas the Imperial Government of Japan has committed unprovoked acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America: Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial Government of Japan which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carryon war against the Imperial Government of Japan; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by, the Congress of the United States. Approved, December 8, 1941, 4:10 p. m., E. S. T." 55 Stat. pt. I, p. 795.)
EVENT LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 309
Japan invaded Thailand which capitulated. (Times, Dec. 9, 1941, p. 1.)
Colombia broke diplomatic relations with Japan. ("The aggression which took place yesterday by the armed forces of the Japanese Empire against the United States constitutes the case clearly foreseen in Resolution Number Fifteen approved at the Second Meeting of Foreign Ministers at Habana on `reciprocal assistance and defensive cooperation of the American nations' by which it is declared that `every attempt of a non American State against the integrity or inviolability of territory, against the sovereignty or political independence of an American State will be considered as an act of aggression against the States which sign this declaration.' " Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 129, p. 489.)
Costa Rica declared war on Japan. (". . . because of unex¬pected and extraordinary aggression of which your country has been the object on the part of Japan while negotiations for peace were going on between the two nations and in accordance with the principles of solidarity and defense of this hemisphere declared in various agreements [between the] American republics . . ." Ibid, p. 490.)
The Dominican Republic declared war on Japan. (". . . faith¬ful to the noble principles which inspire its foreign policy . . . in order that it may be unified with the great American people in the defense of the sacred ideals of liberty and democracy which they so brilliantly support." Ibid., p. 492.)
El Salvador declared war on Japan. ("The Japanese attack on Hawaii and Manila is considered by me [President Martinez] contrary to the principle of law and treatment which is due a country with which Japan was at peace and is absolutely unjusti¬fied." Ibid., p. 493.)
Guatemala declared war on Japan. (". . . thus expressing solidarity of Guatemalan Government and people with the United States of America with which indestructible bonds of loyal friendship unite Guatemala." Ibid., p. 494.)
Haiti declared war on Japan. ("In view of the unjustifiable aggression of the Japanese Government against American posses¬sions in the Pacific the Republic of Haiti, faithful to its policy of friendship and complete understanding with the United States of America and in accord with the Pan American doctrines of continental solidarity, has placed itself alongside of the sister republic in declaring war against the Japanese Empire." Ibid., p. 495.)
Honduras declared war on Japan. (Ibid., p. 496.)
Panama declared war on Japan. (By resolution of National Assembly. Ibid., p. 500.)
Union of South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Free France declared war on Japan. (Ibid., p. 559.)
December 9. Cuba declared war on Japan. ("We consider that this aggression by a non American state against the integrity and inviolability of an American state is such a case as is contemplated in declaration No. 15 of the Conference of Habana, by virtue of which all the nations of this continent should likewise consider themselves attacked in the same way and should act jointly." Ibid., pp. 491 f.)
310 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
China declared war on Japan ("Japan's national policy has always aimed at the domination of Asia and the mastery of the Pacific. For more than four years, China has resolutely resisted Japan's aggression regardless of suffering and sacrifice in order not only to maintain her national independence and freedom, but also to uphold international law and justice and to promote world peace and human happiness.
"China is a peace loving nation. In taking up arms in self-defense, China entertained the hope that Japan might yet realize the futility of her plan of conquest. Throughout the struggle all other powers have shown utmost forbearance likewise in the hope that Japan might one day repent and mend her ways in the interest of peace in the entire Pacific region.
"Unfortunately Japan's aggressive propensities have proven to be incorrigible. After a long and fruitless attempt to conquer China, Japan, far from showing any sign of penitence, has treacherously launched an attack on China's friends, the United States of America and Great Britain, thus extending the theatre of aggressive activities and making herself an arch enemy of Justice and World Peace. This latest act of aggression on the part of Japan lays bare her insatiable ambition and has created a situation which no nation that believes in international good faith and human decency can tolerate." Ibid., pp. 506 f.) and Germany and Italy. ("Since the conclusion of the Tripartite Pact in September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan have unmistakably banded themselves into a bloc of aggressor states working closely together to carry out their common program of world conquest and domination. To demonstrate their solidarity Germany and Italy successively accorded recognition to Japan's puppet regimes in northeast China and Nanking. As a con¬sequence, China severed diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy last July.
"Now the Axis Powers have extended the theatre of aggressive activities and have thrown the whole Pacific region into turmoil making themselves the enemies of international justice and world civilization. This state of affairs can no longer be tolerated by the Chinese Government and people." Ibid., p. 506.)
Mexico broke diplomatic relations with Japan. ("In accord¬ance with the spirit of the resolutions adopted at the Second Consultative Meeting held at Habana in July 1940, . . ." Ibid., p. 497.)
December 11. Germany and Italy declared a state of war with the United States. ("The Government of the United States having violated in the most flagrant manner and in ever increasing measure all rules of neutrality in favor of the adversaries of Germany and having continually been guilty of the most severe provocations toward Germany ever since .the outbreak of the European war, provoked by the British declaration of war against Germany on September 3, 1939, has finally resorted to open military acts of aggression.
"On September 11, 1941, the President of the United States publicly declared that he had ordered the American Navy and Air Force to shoot on sight at any German war vessel. In his
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 311
speech of October 27, 1941, he once more expressly affirmed that this order was in force. Acting under this order, vessels of the American Navy, since early September 1941, have systematically attacked German naval forces: Thus, American destroyers, as for instance the Greer, the Kearney, and the Reuben James, have opened fire on German submarines according to plan. The Secretary of the American Navy, Mr. Knox, himself confirmed that American destroyers attacked German submarines.
"Furthermore, the naval forces of the United States, under order of their Government and contrary to international law have treated and seized German merchant vessels on the high seas as enemy ships.
"The German Government therefore establishes the following facts:
"Although Germany on her part has strictly adhered to the rules of international law in her relations with the United States during every period of the present war, the Government of the United States from initial violations of neutrality has finally proceeded to open acts of war against Germany. The Government of the United States has thereby virtually created a state of war.
"The German Government; consequently, discontinues diplo¬matic relations with the United States of America and declares that under these circumstances brought about by President Roosevelt Germany too, as from today, considers herself as being in a state of war with the United States of America." Ibid., pp. 481 f.)
The United States declared in a joint resolution a state of war with Germany and Italy. ("On the morning of December eleventh, the Government of Germany, pursuing its course of world conquest, declared war against the Unite States. The long known and the long expected has thus taken place. The forces endeavoring to enslave the entire world now are moving towards this hemisphere. Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty, and civilization. Delay invites greater danger. Rapid and united effort by all of the peoples of the world who are determined to remain free will insure a world victory of the forces of justice and of righteousness over the forces of savagery and of barbarism. Italy also has declared war against the United States. I therefore request the Congress to recognize a state of war between the United States and Germany, and between the United States and Italy." President Roosevelt's message to Congress, Peace, pp 848 849.) Hungary broke diplomatic relations with the United States. "The Hungarian Prime Minister informed the American minister that in view of the solidarity of Central European states, which he compared with the solidarity of the republics of the Western Hemisphere, Hungary was obliged to break diplomatic relations with the United States. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. V., No. 129, p. 482.)
Poland declared war with Japan. (Ibid., p. 507.)
Nicaragua declared war on Japan. ("The world already knows of the violent and unjustified aggression on the part of Japan of which the United States of America has been the object. Before this latest attack Nicaragua cannot remain indifferent, linked as
312 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
it is with the nation of the north and with each of the sister republics of the Western Hemisphere not only by ties of geo¬graphic solidarity and of sincere democratic ideology but also by various declarations and Pan American conventions signed in Lima, Panama, and Habana which in themselves create an imme¬diate obligation. In consequence my government finds itself under the necessity of considering Nicaragua in a state of war de hecho with Japan pending the legal declaration of such status by the National Congress in accordance with the principles con¬tained in our .political constitution, and this attitude, which I assume in solidarity with the nations of the American continent in addition to representing my own democratic convictions, faith¬fully interprets the sentiments of the Nicaraguan people who have already made them clear in public and spontaneous form." Ibid., p. 499.)
Cuba, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nica¬ragua declared war with Germany and Italy. (Ibid., pp. 492, 547, 550, 560.) Mexico broke diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy. (Ibid., p. 548.)
December 12. Haiti, Honduras, Panama declared war on Germany and Italy. (Ibid., p. 560.)
Rumania declared war with the United States. (Ibid., p. 561.)
December 13. El Salvador declared war on Germany and Italy. (Ibid., p. 560.)
Bulgaria declared war on the United States ("in accordance with article 3 of the Tripartite pact." Ibid., p. 561) as did Hungary. (Ibid., p. 561.)
December 16. Czechoslovakia declared war on all countries at war with Great Britain, Russia, or the United States: (Ibid., p. 561.)
December 17. Albania reported declared war on the United States. (Ibid., p. 561.)
December 20. Nicaragua declared war on Rumania, Hungary, Bul¬garia. (Ibid., No. 131, p. 584.)
December 23. Mexico broke off relations with Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. (". . . for reasons connected with continental soli¬darity . . ." (Ibid., p. 584.)
[ Continue to 1942 ]