January 2. The United States protested British interference with mails. ("It cannot admit the right of the British authorities to interfere with American mails on American or other neutral ships on the high seas nor can it admit the right of the British Govern¬ment to censor mail on ships which have involuntarily entered British ports. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 28, p. 3.)
January 14. The Netherlands canceled army leaves and Belgium mobilized. (Fear German spring offensive. Times, Jan. 15, 1940, p. 1.) Britain rejected protest of twenty one republics of December 23, 1939. (". . . the proposal, involving as it does the abandon¬ment by the belligerents of certain legitimate belligerent rights, is not one which, on any basis of International Law can be im¬posed upon them by unilateral action, and . . . its adoption re¬quires their specific assent.. . . . Moreover the acceptance of the zone proposals would have to be on the basis that it should not constitute a precedent for a far reaching alteration in the existing laws of maritime neutrality. Up to the present it does not appear that means have been found by which the dis¬advantages of the zone proposal could be eliminated. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 35, p. 200.)
January 20. Winston Churchill, First Lord of British Admiralty, warned European neutrals and asked them to join Allies. ("At present their plight is lamentable and it will become much worse. They bow humbly and in fear to German threats of violence, com¬forting themselves meanwhile with the thought that the Allies will win, that Britain and France will strictly observe all the rules and conventions and that breaches of these laws are only to be expected from the German side. Each one hopes that if he feeds the crocodile enough, the crocodile will eat him last. All of them hope that the storm will pass before their turn comes to be de¬voured. "Times, Jan. 21, 1940, p. 30.)
January 23. France rejected protest of twenty one republics. (". . . it is the strict right of France and Great Britain to oppose this in good time by a counter attack and . . . they cannot be asked to renounce this right." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 35, p. 202. Cf. Dec. 23, 1939, Jan. 14, supra.)
January 24. Prime Minister Chamberlain renewed British pledge to Belgium. (Because of German invasion rumors. Times, Jan. 25, 1940, p. 5. Cf. Nov. 20, 1936, supra.)
January 26. United States Japanese commercial treaty expired. (Denounced July 26, 1939, supra. Ibid., Jan. 26, 1940, p. 8.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 231
February 1. Foreign Minister Hachiro Arita in statement on foreign policy invited active participation of third powers in the construc¬tion of the new order in East Asia. (": . . although there are some who suspect Japan of the intention to eliminate the rights and interests of third powers in China. . . . We are, in fact, anxious to see the development of China's trade with other powers and welcome foreign investments in China as long as they are of a purely economic character. And that I am confident, is also the wish of the new Central Government of China that is about to be established." Ibid., Feb. 1, 1940, p. 12.)
February 6. The United States appointed a minister to Saudi Arabia. ("Whereas 10 years ago there were no more than a score of Americans in the whole extent of the Arabian Peninsula, today Americans number approximately 500, including some 273 Americans in Saudi Arabia alone." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 33, p. 159.)
February 9. Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles sent by President Roosevelt to confer with Britain, France, Germany, and Italy: ("This visit is solely for the purpose of advising the President and the Secretary of State as to present conditions in Europe." Ibid., p. 155.)
February 12. Russia and Germany signed trade treaty. (For in¬creased supplies. Times, Feb. 13, 1940, p. 14. Cf. Aug, 19, 1939, supra.)
February 16. Germany rejected protests of twenty one republics. (". . . the German Government cannot recognize the right of the Governments of the American Republics to decide unilater¬ally upon measures in a manner deviating from the rules hitherto in effect,. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 35, p. 204. Cf. Dec. 23, 1939, Jan. 17, 23, supra.)
February 19. Secretary of State Hull announced that the moral embargo of December 20, 1939, had been extended to Russia. (Ibid., p. 195.)
February 24. German Italian trade agreement signed. (Coal ship¬ments to Italy. Times, Feb. 25, 1940, p. 27.)
March 6. France and Italy signed trade agreement. (To increase trade volume. Ibid., Mar. 7, 1940, p. 3.)
March 11. Allies offered full aid to Finland. ("If asked." Ibid., Mar. 12, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Dec. 10, 11, 14, 1939, supra.)
March 12. Russian Finnish peace treaty signed at Moscow. ("Being desirous of bringing to an end the hostilities which have broken out between the two states and of creating permanent peaceful relations between them, "And being convinced that the creation of definite conditions for their mutual security, including guarantees for the security, of the cities of Leningrad and Murmansk and the Murmansk railway, is in the interest of both contracting parties, . . ." Finnish, p. 115.,)
232 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
March 14. Sweden and Norway contemplated a defensive alliance with Finland. ("As a result of an inquiry by the Finnish Govern¬ment, . . ." Finland, p. 40.)
March 16. The twenty one American Republics protested to Britain. (Because of scuttling of the Wakama, German freighter haled by British war vessel. Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 38, p. 306. Cf. Dec. 23, 1939, supra.)
March 19. Prime Minister Chamberlain defended lack of British help to Finland. (". . . except for Field Marshal's [Mannerheim's] intimation in January that he would wish to have 30,000 men in May, no request of any sort for land forces was made to us by the Fins. . . . Germany publicly professed her neutrality; but behind the scenes made every effort to prevent others from saving Finland and from performing the task which she had always declared to be her own. The responsibility for this affair stands squarely and firmly upon the shoulders of Germany and no other country. It was fear of Germany which prevented Norway and Sweden from giving us permission to pass our troops through their countries, the fear of Germany which prevented her from making her appeal to us for help." Commons, Vol. 358, col. 1841-1842.)
March 20. Russia opposed suggested Finnish Norwegian Swedish alliance,. (". . . for this kind of an alliance would be directed against the Soviet Union–as is revealed by the strongly anti¬-Soviet speech made on March 14 in the Norwegian Parliament by the Speaker of the Parliament, Mr. Hambro–and would run a together counter to the Peace Treaty concluded by the U. S. S. R. and Finland on March 12, 1940. Finland, p. 41.)
March 21. Premier Daladier was replaced by Paul Reynaud as French Premier. ("Invitation of President Albert Lebrun." Ibid., Mar. 21, 1940, p. 1.)
March 28. Supreme War Council of Allies resolved on no separate peace. ("In the light of the results achieved by the agreement of December last signed by Sir John Simon and M. Paul Reynaud and desiring to extend the scope of this agreement to all spheres affecting the interests and security of the two nations, Ibid., Mar. 29, 1940, p. 3.)
March 30. Winston Churchill forecast long war. ("The British Empire and the French Republic are now joined together in indissoluble union so that their full purposes maybe accom¬plished. . . . But the fact is that many of the smaller States of Europe are terrorized. by Nazi violence and brutality into supply¬ing Germany with the material of modern war, and this fact may condemn the whole world to a prolonged ordeal with grievous, unmeasured consequences in many lands." Ibid., Mar. 31, 1940, p. 35.)
Wang Ching-wei government proclaimed in Nanking. ("He came out for national salvation through opposition to com¬munism and conclusion of peace with. Japan. In the face of
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 233
all manners of pressure and persecution by Chungking, he pur¬sued the path of his conviction, bringing light to his people lost in darkness. Thus has he won the confidence and the following of his nation. His peace and national salvation movement as well as the preparation for a new central government have made rapid headway since the Sixth Kuomintang National Congress which was held in Shanghai in August of last year." Japan, Vol. II, p. 57: "A renascent China has just set out on the road to progress; a new defence is about to commence in East Asia." Ibid., p. 61.)
The United States refused to recognize the Wang Ching wei regime. "In the light of what has happened in various parts of China since 1931, the setting up of a new regime at Nanking has the appearance of a further step in a program of one country by armed force to impose its will upon a neighboring country and to block off a large area of the world from normal political and economic relationships with the rest of the world. The develop¬ments there seems to be following the pattern of other regimes and systems which have been set up in China under the aegis of an outside power and which in their functioning especially favor the interests of that outside, power and deny to nationals of the United States and other third countries enjoyment of long established rights of equal and fair treatment which are legally and justly theirs.
* * * * *
"Twelve years ago the Government of the United States recog¬nized, as did other governments, the National Government of the Republic of China. . The Government of the United States has ample reason for believing that that Government, with capital now at Chungking, has had and still has the allegiance and support of the great majority of the Chinese people. The Government of the United States of course continues to recognize that Govern¬ment as the Government of China." Statement by Secretary of State Hull, Japan, Vol. II, p. 59.
April 2. Lithuania notified League of her determination to keep Vilna. (Based on peace treaty of July 12, 1920. "In recovering possession of her capital Lithuania vindicated her ancient rights, which never at any time were transferred to Poland." Times; Apr. 3, 1940, p. 15.)
April 8. Britain and France mined Norwegian waters. ("Whatever may be the actual policy which the Norwegian Government, by German threats and pressure, are compelled to follow, the Allied Governments can no longer afford to acquiesce in the present state of affairs, by which Germany obtains from Norway facilities which place the Allies at a dangerous disadvantage.
"They have, therefore, already given notice to the Norwegian Government that they reserve the right to take such measures as they may think necessary to hinder or prevent Germany from obtaining in Norway resources or facilities which for the purpose of war would be to her advantage or to the disadvantage of the Allies." Ibid., Apr. 8, 1940, p. 10. Cf. Norway, p. 45. "These violations are carried out solely because the States concerned
234 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
have the power to do so." Ibid., p. 48. Cf. von Ribbentrop statement, Ibid., pp. 80 f.)
April 9. German troops invaded Denmark and Norway.
"The German Government possesses documentary proof that England and France had jointly decided, if necessary, to carry out their action through the territory of the Northern States against the will of the latter." Norway, p. 55. "Germany has thus preserved the Scandinavian countries and peoples from destruction, and will until the end of the war defend true neu¬trality in the North.
"I am convinced that this action of the Führer has saved an ancient and respected part of Europe from that certain. ruin and utter destruction to which our English and French enemies are clearly indifferent." Ibid., p. 64.)
Prime Minister Chamberlain announced full Allied aid to Nor¬way. (". . . in view of the German invasion of their country . . ." Times, Apr. 10, 1940, p. 2. Cf. Norway, pp. 61 f.)
Denmark submitted to Germany under protest. ("In these circumstances, which are so grave to our country, I ask all of you inhabitants of the cities and country to maintain an attitude completely correct and dignified, since every inconsiderate act or word can draw in its wake most serious consequences." Times, Apr. 10, 1940, p. 4.)
April 10. Iceland suspended exercise of royal power of King of Denmark. (". . . having regard for the fact that the situation created makes it impossible for His Majesty the King of Iceland to execute the royal power given to him under the constitutional act, . . . having regard for the situation now created, Denmark is not in a position to execute the authority to take charge of the foreign affairs of Iceland granted to it by the provisions of Article VII of the Danish Icelandic Union Act, nor can it carry out the fishery inspection within Icelandic territorial waters. . . ." Ibid., Apr. 11, 1940, p. 6.)
The United States froze Norwegian and Danish funds. (Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 46, p. 493.)
Belgium canceled army leaves and reaffirmed neutrality. Times, Apr. 11, 1940, p. 9.)
Belgium rejected Allied "preventive aid" suggested by Britain. ("Belgium has solemnly declared her intention to remain neutral in the present conflict. At any time that she accepted outside aid to maintain this neutrality, she would in so doing be aban¬doning this neutrality . . . the Government's policy has not [changed] and will not change." Times, Apr. 12, 1940, p. 1.)
April 11. The Netherlands took defense precautions. (". . . as a result of developments in the European war, . . ." Ibid., Apr. 11, 1940, p. 9.) Winston Churchill said German troop movements on Norway began before British laid mine field. ("The Nazi Government have sought to make out that their invasion of Norway and Denmark was a consequence of our action in closing the Norway corridor." Ibid., Commons, Vol. 359, col. 738. Cf. Norway, p. 70.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 235
April 15. Japanese Foreign Minister Arita said Japan desired status quo of The Netherlands Indies. ("With the South Seas region, and especially the Dutch East Indies, Japan is economically bound by an intimate relationship of mutuality in ministering to one another's needs. Similarly other countries of East Asia maintain close economic relations with these regions. That is to say, Japan, those countries, and these regions are contributing to the prosperity of East Asia through mutual aid and inter¬dependence.
"Should the hostilities in Europe be extended to The Nether¬lands and produce repercussions in the Dutch East Indies, it would not only interfere with the maintenance and furtherance of the above named relations of economic interdependence and co existence and co prosperity, but would also give rise to an undesirable situation from the standpoint of peace and stability in East Asia." Times, Apr. 16, 1940, p. 9. Cf. Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 66, p. 248.)
April 16. Iceland asked to enter into direct relations with the United States. (Cf. Apr. 9, supra. Ibid., Vol. II, No. 43, p. 414.)
April 17. Secretary of State Hull issued formal statement that any change in status quo of the Indies "would be prejudicial to the cause of stability, peace, and security . . . in the entire Pacific area." ("The Netherlands Indies are very important in the international relationships of the whole Pacific Ocean. . . . They are also an important factor in the commerce of the whole world. They produce considerable portions of the world's supplies of important essential commodities such as rubber, tin, quinine, copra, et cetera. Many countries, including the United States, depend substantially upon them for some of these com¬modities." Ibid., p. 411, Cf. Peace, pp. 515 f.)
April 19. The Netherlands declared state of siege and reaffirmed neutrality. ("As far as is humanly possible we rely on ourselves, but, in addition, we have promises that our neutrality will be respected as long as we actively maintain it. Of this there can be no doubt. Therefore, we do not wish any arrangements. We shun them. The government rejects all suggestions of assistance, whether offered or actually forced on us. The same applies to our overseas territories." Times, Apr. 20, 1940, p. 1.)
Germany dismissed Norwegian envoy. (Because of Norwegian hostility to Germany. Times, Apr. 20, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Norway, pp. 76 f.) Yugoslavia smashed Nazi plot to overturn the government. (Espionage. Times, Apr. 20, 1940, p. 1.)
April 20. Germany and Rumania signed trade agreement. (Provid¬ing Czech arms and planes for the latter. Ibid., Apr. 21, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Mar. 23, Dec. 21,1939, supra.)
April 24. Germany took over direct control of Norway. (King Haakon rejected negotiations with German administration. Ibid., Apr. 25, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 16, supra. "The Nygaardsvold Government, by its proclamations and its attitude, as well
236 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
as by the military operations which have taken place by its decision, has created a state of war between Norway and Ger¬many. In order to safeguard public order and public life in the parts of Norwegian territory which are under the protection of German troops, I [Hitler] decree: . . ." Norway, p. 78.)
United States established consular representation with Iceland. ("Through an exchange of telegrams. . . ." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 44, p. 434. Cf. Apr. 16, supra.)
April 25. Rumania declared a political amnesty. (Restored Iron Guard. Times, Apr. 26, 1940, p. 8. Cf. Apr. 20, supra.)
April 29. President Roosevelt appealed to Premier Mussolini to exert Italian influence for a just and stable peace. ("A further exten¬sion of the area of hostilities, which would bring into the war still other nations which have been seeking to maintain their neutrality, would necessarily have far reaching and unforeseeable consequences, not only in Europe, but also in the Near and the Far East, in Africa, and in the three Americas. No man can today, predict with assurance, should such a further extension take place, what the ultimate result might be–or foretell what nations, however determined they may today be to remain at peace, might yet eventually find it imperative in their own defense to enter the war." Peace, p. 519.)
May 1. The United States established a provisional consulate in Greenland. ("Since communication between Copenhagen and Greenland has been interrupted, direct consular representation has been deemed advisable by the United States and lay the Greenland authorities." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 45, p. 473. Cf. Apr. 9, supra.)
Premier Mussolini told Ambassador William Phillips Germany could not be beaten. ("Fifteen countries can now be called upon by Germany for every kind of supplies. . . . the blockade of the Allies was therefore completely ineffective." Peace, p. 521.)
May 2. Prime Minister Chamberlain reported on British retreat from, northern Norway. (". . . it has always been possible for the Germans, with their usual disregard for life, even of their own people, to send reinforcements to Norway at a much greater rate than would be open to us with the inadequate landing places we have to rely on. . . . We have no intention of allowing Norway to become merely, a sideshow, but neither are we going to be trapped into such dispersal of our forces as would leave us danger¬ously weak at a vital center." Commons, Vol. 360, cols. 910, 912. Cf. Norway, pp. 95 ff,)
Premier Mussolini wrote President Roosevelt that the Axis opposed extension of the war. (". . . no peace is possible without the fundamental problems of Italian liberty being settled. . . . Italy, however, has never concerned itself with the relations of the American republics with each other and with the United States (thereby respecting the Monroe Doctrine), and might therefore ask for `reciprocity' with regard to European affairs." Peace, p. 522.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 237
May 3. President Roosevelt revealed he had appealed to Italy May 1 not to enter war. (Trying to prevent extension to new areas. Times, May 4, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 29, supra.)
May 4. The Netherlands arrested suspects. (Fifth columnists. Ibid., May 5, 1940, p. 41.)
May 6. Italy promised not to attack Greece if Italy were at war with Britain, unless Greece were converted to a British base. ("Italy, as a Great Power, has her own claims, which she will put forward in due time, but she is prepared to give the assurance that the claims in question do not concern either Greece or the Balkans generally." Greek, p. 50. )
May 7. The Netherlands completed defense preparations. (Called up two marine reserve classes. Times, May 8, 1940, p. 1.) Prime Minister Chamberlain reported on British retreat from Trondheim, Norway. ("I believe it was right to make the first attempt and equally right to withdraw the troops when it was clear that plan would not succeed . . . it became clear we could only maintain our force in the Trondheim region by such a concentra¬tion of men and materials and aircraft as would have drawn off altogether an undue proportion of our total resources, and in these special circumstances we decided that we could carry on the campaign in Norway, elsewhere, with greater vigour and effect." Ibid., p. 4. Cf. Norway, pp. 110 f. Commons, Vol. 360, col. 1080.)
May 8. Winston Churchill attributed failure in Norway to lack of air parity with Germany. ("If we have decided to speak in this plain manner, it is because of the cataract of unworthy sugges¬tions and of actual falsehoods which have been poured out to the public during the last few days." Commons, Vol. 360, cols. 1357 1358. Norway, p. 112.)
May 9. British troops occupied Iceland. ("Since the German seizure of Denmark it has become necessary to reckon with the possibility of a sudden German descent on Iceland.
"It is clear that in the face of an attack on Iceland, even on a very small scale, the Icelandic Government would be unable to prevent their country from fallings completely into German, hands." Times, May 10, 1940, p. 1.)
Germany invaded Belgium, Luxemburg, and The Netherlands. (". . . the German Government was in possession of irrefutable evidence that the Allies were about to attack Germany through Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxemburg, and that this attack had been long in preparation with the knowledge of Belgium and The Netherlands." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 46, p. 486.)
The Netherlands protested violation of neutrality. ("After our country, with scrupulous conscientiousness, had observed strict neutrality all these months. . . ." Ibid., May 10, 1940, p. 1.)
238 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
May 10. Chancellor Hitler told the Reichswehr the decisive hour had come. ("For 300 years it was the aim of the English and French rulers to prevent every real consolidation of Europe and, above all, to hold Germany in weakness and impotency.
"For this purpose France alone has declared war on Germany thirty one times in 200 years.
"For decades it has been the aim of British world rulers to keep Germany from unity, to deny the Reich every earthly possession which is necessary to the preservation of a nation of 80,000,000 people." Ibid., May 11, 1940, p. 4.)
Prime Minister Chamberlain resigned. ("I am not now going to make any comment upon the debate in the House of Commons which took place on Tuesday and Wednesday, but when it was over, I had no doubt in my mind that some new and drastic action must be taken if confidence was to be restored to the House of Commons and the war carried on with the vigor and energy which are essential to victory. What was that action to be? It was clear that at this critical moment in the war what was needed was the formation of a government which would include members of the Labour and Liberal Oppositions and thus present a united front to the enemy. . . .
"The essential unity could be secured under another Prime Minister, though not myself. . . .
"His Majesty has now entrusted to my rt. hon. colleague, Mr. Winston Churchill, the task of forming a new Administration on a national basis . . ." London Times, May 11, 1940, p. 3.)
The United States froze Belgian, Dutch, and Luxemburg credit. (Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 46, p. 493.)
Belgium protested violation of neutrality. ("Although Ger¬many has not declared war, the German Army has just crossed the frontier of the Kingdom of Belgium and has attacked the Belgian Army with considerable forces. All the facts and all the documents in the possession of the Belgian Government prove that the aggression was premeditated. No complaint was brought to its notice before the act of aggression. Moreover, there was nothing in the relations between the two countries, for the most part good, to suggest that a conflict was likely to arise." Belgium, pp. 100 f.)
May 11. Allied troops landed at Curaçao and Aruba. (". . . to prevent possible German attempts at sabotage in the important oil refineries of these islands." Times, May 12, 1940, p. 1. Cf. May 9, supra.)
Prime Minister Churchill named new cabinet. (Coalition. Ibid., p.1.)
May 13. Prime Minister Churchill said British policy was war by land, sea, and air, and victory at all costs. (". . . for without victory there is no survival. Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of the ages, that mankind will move forward toward his goal." Commons, Vol. 360, col. 1504.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 239
May 14. The Netherlands Government fled to Britain. ("When it became certain that we and our Ministers would be unable to con¬tinue to exercise freely the authority of the State, we took the harsh but imperative step of transferring our residence abroad for as long as would be necessary with the firm intention of returning to The Netherlands when possible.
"The government now is in England. It wanted to prevent ever being placed in such a position that it would have to capitu¬late.. By the steps which we have taken, The Netherlands remains a full member of the community of States and will be in a position to continue cooperation with its allies." Times, May 15, 1940, p. 3.)
President Roosevelt again appealed to Premier Mussolini to stay out of war. (". . . reports reaching me from many sources, to the effect that you may be contemplating early entry into the war, have given me great concern. . . . if this war should extend throughout the world it would pass beyond the control of heads of States, would encompass the destruction of millions of lives and the best of what we call the liberty and culture of civilization. And no man, no matter how omniscient, how powerful, can foretell the result either to himself or his own people." Peace, p. 526. Cf. Apr. 29, supra.)
May 15. The Netherlands Army capitulated. (On advice of the Allies. Times, May 16, 1940, p. 1.)
May 16. President Roosevelt asked new defense appropriations. ("First, to procure the essential equipment of all kinds for a larger and thoroughly rounded out Army;
"Second, to replace or modernize all old Army and Navy equipment with the latest type of equipment;
"Third, to increase production facilities for everything needed for the Army and Navy for national defense. We require the ability to turn out quickly infinitely greater supplies;
"Fourth, to speed up to a 24 hour basis all existing Army and Navy contracts and all new contracts to be awarded. . . .
"Our task is plain. The road we must take is clearly indicated. Our defenses must be invulnerable, our security absolute. But our defense as it was yesterday, or even as it is today, does not provide security against potential developments and dangers of the future.
"Defense cannot be static. Defense must grow and change from day to day. Defense must be dynamic and flexible, an expression of the vital farces of the nation and of its resolute will to meet whatever challenge the future may hold." Bulletin, Vol. II, no. 47, pp. 531 f. Cf. Peace, p. 530.)
Ambassador Kensuke Horinouchi told Secretary of State Hull Japan had no plans nor purpose to attack The Netherlands Indies. (Japan "was entirely satisfied with the situation following the reiteration of the status quo in respect to the Netherlands Indies by each of the four governments interested, and . . . it had no purpose to raise any further controversy in that connection unless perchance the British or French should land troops there to protect them . . ." Ibid., p. 534. Cf. Apr. 15, 17, supra.)
240 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
May 18. Premier Mussolini forecast Italy's entry into the war. (Cf. May 14, supra. "Italy is and intends to remain allied with Germany and . . . Italy cannot remain absent at a moment in which the fate of Europe is at stake." Ibid:, p. 536.) Chancellor Hitler. proclaimed the re-incorporation of Eupen, Malmedy, and Moresnet. (By decree. Times, May 20, 1940, p. 1.)
May 19. Twenty one American Republics protested violation of neutrality in Europe. ("The American Republics in accord with the principles of international law and in application of the resolu¬tions adopted in their inter American conferences, consider un¬justifiable the ruthless violation by Germany of the neutrality and sovereignty of Belgium, Holland, and Luxemburg." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 48, p. 568. Cf. Apr. 9, May 9, supra.)
Prime Minister Churchill promised victory in the coming battle of Britain. ("I have received from the chiefs of the French Republic, and in particular from its indomitable Prime Minister, M. Reynaud, the most sacred pledges that, whatever happens, they will fight to the end, be it bitter or be it glorious. Nay, if we fight to the end, it can only be glorious," Times, May 20, 1940, p. 4.)
May 22. Prime Minister Churchill was voted supreme power to draft labor, property, and money. (To reorganize and nationalize war industries and mobilize and redistribute labor power. Commons, Vol. 361, col. 185.)
Rumania called up reservists. (Training. Times, May 23 1940, p. 6.)
May 26. President Roosevelt in third appeal to Premier Mussolini offered his good offices to obtain readjustments for Italy from Britain and France. ("Events have been marching swiftly but I still believe that political long range vision favors the limitation of the war to its present areas. . . . The people of the United States are greatly concerned by the indications of the past few days which would seem to show that there was an increasing possibility of the extension of the European War to the Mediter¬ranean area. . . . I would take this action in the belief that I am thereby rendering a constructive service at this critical moment with the hope that the cause of peace might thereby be furthered." Peace, pp. 536 f.)
May 28. Belgian Army, under King Leopold surrendered. Times, May 29, p. 1.
May 29. Premier Mussolini rejected President Roosevelt's offer. ("The Duce was not disposed to engage in any negotiations which indeed would not be in accordance with the spirit of Fascism . . . the Duce was responsible for the `fulfillment of an engagement¬–of words given' . . ." Peace, p. 538.)
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 241
May 30. Britain began evacuating Dunkirk. (Times, May 31, 1940, p. 1.)
President Roosevelt made fourth appeal to Premier Mussolini to avoid war. ("If the war in Europe is now extended through the entrance of Italy into the war, direct interests of the Government of the United States will be immediately and prejudicially affected. . . . Through the extension of the war to the Medi¬terranean region and the inevitable destruction of life and property resulting therefrom, the legitimate interests of the American people will be gravely curtailed and such a possibility cannot be viewed with equanimity by their Government.
"An extension of the war into the Mediterranean region will almost unquestionably likewise involve a further extension, of the war area in the Near East and in other regions of the world . . . the further extension of the war as a result of Italian participation would at once result in an increase in the rearmament program of the United States itself and in a redoubling of the efforts of the Government of the United States to facilitate in every practical way the securing within the United States by the, Allied Powers of all the supplies and materiel which they may require." Peace, p. 539.)
May 3l. President Roosevelt asked Congress for "acceleration and development of our military and naval needs as measured in both machines and men." (". . . the almost incredible events of the then past two weeks in the European conflict had necessitated another enlargement of our military program. . . ." Congressional Record [Bound], Vol. 86, Pt. 7, p. 7282.)
June 1. Premier Mussolini rejected peace appeal. (". . . already the decision to enter the war had been made. . . . He desires to fulfill on his part his engagements with Germany and does not believe that an enlargement of the Mediterranean war will necessarily be brought about by the intervention of Italy." Peace, p. 544.)
June 3. Norway sued for armistice partitioning Norway. (". . . the Government was bound more and more to come to see that it would not be practically possible to regain for Norwegian control the whole of the rest of Norway in the immediate future, . . ." Norway, p. 123.)
June 4. Prime Minister Churchill, in the House of Commons, reported on the evacuation from Dunkirk. ("I asked the House a week ago to suspend its judgment because the facts were not clear, but I do not feel that any reason now exists why we should not form our own opinions upon this pitiful episode. . . .
". . . even if . . . this island or a large part of it were subju¬gated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle . . ." Commons, Vol. 361, cols. 793, 800.)
June 6. Foreign Minister Daladier was dropped from Reynaud cabinet. (Premier Reynaud took that portfolio. Times, June 7, 1940, p. 1.)
242 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
June 7. Italy ordered ships to neutral ports. (As a move toward war. Ibid., June 8, 1940, p 1. Cf. May 18, supra.) Norwegian Government fled to Britain. (". . . the German forces succeeded in securing a foothold in Norway and gradually subjugating the greater part of the country. . . ." Norway, p. 119.)
June 8. Rumania called up five more classes of reservists. (Pre¬paredness measure anticipating Italy's entry into war. Times, June 9, 1940, p. 28. Cf. May 22, supra.)
June 9. Norwegian high command ordered army to cease hostilities at midnight. ("But the hard necessity of war has forced the Allied governments to gather all their strength for the struggle on other fronts and they need all their men and all material on these fronts.
"Under these conditions it is impossible to continue in this country against a superior power as formidable as Germany. Our defensive forces, which fought two months with spirit and courage, are without necessary war materials, particularly ammunition and fighter planes, and no longer are able to obtain them.
"A continued struggle would only lead to complete destruction of those parts of the country that still are free." Ibid., June 11, 1940, p. 9. Cf. May 2, 7, 8, supra.)
June 10. Italy declared war on Britain and France. (". . . Italy con¬siders herself at war with France [and Great Britain]." Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 553. "Mussolini replied that he was doing nothing but fulfilling the pledges that he had given to Hitler." Times, June 11, 1940, p. 12. "We take the field against the plutocratic and reactionary democracies who always have blocked the march and frequently plotted against the existence of the Italian people. . . .
"If today we have decided to take the risks and sacrifices of war, it is because the honor, interests, and future firmly impose it, since a great people is truly such if it considers its obligations sacred and does not avoid the supreme trials that determine the course of history.
"We are taking up arms, after having solved the problem of our continental frontiers, to solve our maritime frontiers. We want to break the territorial and military chains that confine us in our sea, because a country of 45,000,000 souls is not truly free if it has not free access to the ocean.
"This gigantic conflict is only a phase of the logical develop¬ment of our revolution. It is the conflict of poor, numerous peoples who labor against starvers who ferociously cling to a monopoly of all riches and all gold on earth. "It is a conflict of fruitful, useful peoples against peoples who are in a decline. It is a conflict between two ages, two ideas.
"Now the die is cast and our will has burned our ships behind us." Ibid., p. 4. Cf. Clement Attlee's statement: "There is no quarrel between the Italians and the British and French peoples . . .because Mussolini thinks he sees a chance of secur¬ing some spoils at the expense of the western democracies now
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 243
that they are at grips with the brute force of Germany. . . . Signor Mussolini uses the argument of the jackal which accents the possibility of getting some scrap from another beast's kill. This is the ignoble role that Signor Mussolini has chosen for the great Italian people which has made such a splendid con¬tribution to European civilization in the past. . . . The two dictators have united to destroy democracy, and democracy will answer the challenge. From across the Atlantic has came an answer from another great democracy." Times, June 12, 1940, p. 6.)
Italy assured Greece of continued peaceful relations. (". . . it was Italy's firm intention that peace should not be disturbed in the Balkans." Greek, p. 55. "I [Mussolini] solemnly declare that Italy has no intentions of dragging into the conflict other nations who are her neighbors by sea or by land. Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey, and Egypt should take note of these words." Ibid., p. 56.)
France appealed to the United States for help. (". . . before it is too late." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 51, p. 638. Cf. Peace, p. 550.)
President Roosevelt promised to "extend to the opponents of force the material resources of this Nation and, at the same time, we will harness and speed up the use of those resources in order that we ourselves in the Americas may have equipment and training equal to the task of any emergency and every defense." (". . . the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor." Ibid., pp. 548 f.)
June 12. Britain ordered complete blockade of Italy. ("Italy by her, actions has associated herself with Germany in the present was and thereby made herself a party to the method of waging war adopted by Germany." Times, June 13, 1940, p. 5.)
Anglo Thailand nonaggression treaty signed. (Mutual guar¬antee. Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 61, pp. 170 f.)
Egypt broke diplomatic relations with Italy. ("The Chamber will continue to support the government in its stand with the Allies, who are fighting for justice and liberty." Times, June 13, 1940, p. 1.) Russia accused Lithuania of military alliance against her. (Latvia, p. 112.)
June 13. President Roosevelt promised redoubled help for France and the Allies. (". . . because of our faith in and our support of the ideals for which the Allies are fighting.
"The magnificent resistance of the French and British armies has profoundly impressed the American people." Peace, p. 551.)
June 14. German troops entered Paris. (Declared an unfortified town. Times, June 15, 1941, p. 1.) France again appealed to the United States for help. (Cf. June 10) "Our divisions are decimated. Generals are commanding battalions. The Reichswehr has just entered Paris. We are going to attempt to withdraw our exhausted forces in order to fight new battles. It is doubtful, since they are at grips with an
244 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
enemy which is constantly throwing in fresh troops, that this can be accomplished. . . . France can continue the struggle only if American intervention reverses the situation by making an Allied victory certain.
"The only chance of saving the French nation, vanguard of democracies, and through her to save England, by whose side France could then remain with her powerful navy, is to throw into the balance, this very day the weight of American power . . . if you cannot give to France in the hours to come the certainty that the United States will come into the war within a very short time, the fate of the world will change. Then you will see France go under like a drowning man and disappear after having cast a last look towards the land of liberty from which she awaited salvation." Peace, pp. 551 f.)
Spanish troops took over international zone at Morocco. (To guarantee its neutrality. Times, June 15, 1940, p. 1.)
Britain, France, Belgium, and The Netherlands signed mone¬tary accord. (For currency union. Ibid., p. 2.)
Wang Ching wei regime in China demanded withdrawal of British, French, and Italian troops. (". . . the request is made in order to maintain peace and order and protect the lives and property of the Chinese in the areas concerned." Ibid., June 14, 1940, p. 7.)
June 15. Russian troops marched into Lithuania. (After acceptance of ultimatum by Lithuania. Ibid., June 16, 1940, p. 1.) President Roosevelt promised France material aid. (". . . so long as the French people continue in defense of their liberty which constitutes the cause of popular institutions, throughout the world, . . ." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 51, p. 639. Cf. Peace, p. 553.)
June 16. Russia delivered ultimatum to Latvia. (". . . To achieve the honest and loyal execution of the Latvian Soviet Pact of Mutual Assistance." Latvia, p. 107.)
Marshal Henri Pétain replaced Premier Reynaud. (The utter refused to surrender to Germany. Times, June 17, 1940, p. 1.) Britain offered union of empires to France. (". . .with the object of assisting France and supporting her to the utmost in the hours of stress through which she was passing, as also in the hope of encouraging the French Government to continue their resistance, . . ." Ibid., June 28, 1940, p. 9.)
June 17. Russia announced Esthonia and Latvia had agreed, to free passage of Russian troops and to formation of new governments. (Following ultimatums. "On the basis of factual data at the disposal of the Soviet Government, and also on the basis of an exchange of views lately held in Moscow between Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the U. S. S. R., Molotov and Chairman of the Council of Ministers Merkys, the Soviet Government considers as an established fact that the Latvian Government not only did not cancel the military alliance with Esthonia created prior to conclusion of the Soviet Latvian mutual¬-assistance pact and directed against the U. S. S. R., but extended
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 245
it by drawing Lithuania also into this alliance, and by attempts to draw Finland into it also. . . . Latvia jointly with the other Baltic States engaged in activizing and extending the military alliance, which was proved by such acts as convocation of two secret conferences of the three Baltic States in December, 1939, and March 1940, for formal conclusion of an enlarged military alliance with Esthonia and Lithuania; intensification of connec¬tions of the general staffs of Latvia, Esthonia, and Lithuania effected in secret from the U. S. S. R., and the founding in February 1940, of a special publication of the Baltic military entente, Revue Baltique, issued in the English, French, and German lan¬guages. . . . The government considers that such a situation cannot be tolerated any longer." Ibid., June 17; .,1940, p. 6. Cf. Latvia, p. 122.)
France asked armistice terms of Germany. Marshal Pétain sued for peace with honor. (Condition to surrender. Times, June 18., 1940, p. 1. Cf. Rice; p. 5.)
Britain determined to fight on alone. ("What has happened in France makes, no difference to British faith and purpose. We have become the sole champions now in arms to defend the world cause." Times, June 18, 1940, p. 9. Cf. Ibid., June 26, 1940, p. 6.)
The United States froze French assets. (Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 52, p. 682.)
The United States notified Germany and Italy it would not recognize any transfer of any geographic regions of the Western Hemisphere. (". . . in accordance with its traditional policy." Ibid., p. 681. Cf. Peace, p. 555.)
President Roosevelt inquired of France as to the disposition of the French fleet. ([Secretary of State Hull in a telegram to the Ambassador near the French Government at Bordeaux] ". . . the views of this Government with regard to the disposition of the French fleet have been made very clear to the French Government on previous occasions . . . the French Government will permanently lose the friendship and good will of the Government of the United States." Ibid., pp. 553 f.)
June 18. France assured the United States Germany would never get the French fleet. (Cf. June 17, supra. ". . . it might be sent overseas or it might be sunk." Peace, p. 554. )
Bulgaria demanded Dobruja and outlet to Aegean sea. (Wanted scrapping of Treaty of Neuilly. Ibid., p. 9.)
General Charles de Gaulle appealed for French soldiers, engi¬neers, skilled workmen to join him. ("Whatever happens the flame of French resistance must not be extinguished." [Unofficial translation.] Rice, p. 135.)
Note of the United States to Germany and Italy concerning European possessions in the Western Hemisphere. ("The Government of the United States feels it desirable, . . . to inform Your Excellency that in accordance with its traditional policy relating to the Western Hemisphere, the United States would not recognize any transfer, and would not acquiesce in any attempt to transfer, any geographic region of the Western Hemisphere from one non American power to another non American power." Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 52, pp. 681 682.)
246 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
June 19. Japan opposed change in status quo in Indochina. (Because of geography and close economic interests. Times, June 19, 1940, pp 1, 8. Cf. Apr. 15, supra.)
General de Gaulle called for continuous overseas resistance. (Cf. June 18, supra. "Every Frenchman who still bears arms has the absolute duty to continue resistance." [Unofficial translation.] Rice, p. 136.) Britain and Japan signed accord on Tientsin. (On law and order and currency. Times, June 20, 1940, p. 6. Cf. July 24, 1939, supra.)
Polish and Belgian governments in exile transferred to London. (Because of French peace proposals. Ibid., June 19, 1940, p. 1.)
June 20. France asked Italy for armistice. (Ibid., June 21, 1940, p. 1.) Japan demanded embargo on arms to China from French Indo¬china. (Because of European situation. Ibid., June 20, 1940, p. 6.)
June 21. King Carol of Rumania assumed dictatorial powers. (". . . To guide the moral and material life of the nation . . ." Ibid., June 22, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Apr. 20, 25, supra.)
June 22. Franco German armistice signed at Compiègne. (To stop German drive. Ibid., June 23, 1940, p. 1. "I have, asked our adversaries to put an end to hostilities. . . . I took this decision, hard to the heart of a soldier, because the military situation im¬posed it. Since June 13 the demand for an armistice was inevi¬table. . . . The inferiority of our material was even greater than that of our effectives. . . . Weaker also than twenty two years ago, we also had fewer friends. Too few children, too few arms, too few allies, these are the causes of our defeat. "–Pétain [Unofficial Translation] Rice, p. 6.)
June 24. General de Gaulle repeated his call of June 18. ("Honor, good sense, the interest of the fatherland demand free French continue to fight where they are and as they can." Ibid., pp. 139 f.)
France gave up her defense sector in Shanghai to Japan. (Times, June 25, 1940, p. 6. Cf. June 17, supra.)
Franco Italian armistice signed. (To end hostilities. Ibid., June 26, 1940, p. 5. Cf. Rice, pp. 19 25.)
France determined to maintain independence at home. ("The government considered that it was its duty to remain in France and share the fate of all Frenchmen and that France could recover only through reflection of order and labor." Times, June 25, 1940, p, 4. Cf. Rice, pp. 7 10.)
Norwegian Government rejected proposal of a State Council of Norway. ("Neither is it possible to get such a consent made in a constitutional manner, since there exists no legal assembly which has the right to act on behalf of the Norwegian Storting. And any such agreement is in open conflict with the Norwegian Constitution. "The Constitution lays it down in its first paragraph that the Kingdom of Norway is a free, independent, indivisible, and
EVENTS LEASING UP TO WORLD WAR II 247
inalienable kingdom It prescribes in its last paragraph that no change may ever be made in the Constitution which conflicts with its spirit. Independence is the greatest and highest prin¬ciple in the Constitution and everyone who undertakes anything contrary to this principle infringes the Constitution. The Con¬stitution also expressly lays it down that anyone who in any way impedes the Storting's freedom of decision makes himself guilty of treason against the Fatherland, so that even decisions of the Storting made under duress must be regarded as illegal.
"A reconstruction of the Government in Norway such as is proposed cannot therefore be valid and can have no effect upon the position either of the King or of the Government." Norway, p. 126.)
June 25. Prime Minister Churchill said Britain had consented to French armistice. (". . . in view of all they [France] had suffered . . . provided that the French Fleet is dispatched to British ports and remains there while the negotiations are con¬ducted. . . . many solemn assurances were given that the Fleet would never be allowed to fall into German hands. It was therefore, `with grief and amazement', to quote the words of the Government statement which we issued on Sunday, that I read Article 8 of the Armistice terms.
"This article, to which the French Government have sub¬scribed, says that the French Fleet excepting that part left free for the safeguarding of French interests in the Colonial Empire, shall be collected in ports to be specified and there demobilized and disarmed under German or Italian control. From this text it is clear that the French war vessels under this Armistice, pass into German or Italian control while fully armed." Commons, Vol. 362, cols. 303, 304.)
June 26. Russian ultimatum to Rumania. ("In 1918, taking ad¬vantage of Russia's military weakness, Rumania forcibly wrested from the Soviet Union part of its territory–Bessarabia–and thus broke the age old unity of Bessarabia, populated chiefly by Ukrainians, with the Ukrainian Soviet Republic.
The Soviet Union never reconciled itself to the forcible wrest¬ing of Bessarabia, which the U. S. S. R. Government more than once openly declared for the whole world to hear.
"Now, when the military weakness of the U. S. S. R. has be¬come a thing of the past, while the present international situa¬tion demands the speediest solution of outstanding issues in¬herited from the past in order to lay at last the foundations of a durable peace between countries, the Soviet Union considers it necessary and timely in the interests of the restoration of justice to take up jointly with Rumania the immediate settlement of the question of the restoration of Bessarabia to the Soviet Union.
"The Government of the U. S. S. R. considers that the ques¬tion of the restoration of Bessarabia is organically bound with the question of transfer to the Soviet Union of that part of Bukovina of which the population in its overwhelming majority is bound to the Soviet Ukraine by the unity of historic destinies as well as by unity of la age and national composition." Times, June 29, 1940, p. 8. Cf. June 21, supra.)
248 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
June 27. The Norwegian Presidential Board of the Storting deter¬mined to nominate a National Council. ("Since the King and his Government are outside Norway and are therefore prevented from carrying out the functions imposed upon them by the Constitution. . . " Norway, p. 130.)
June 28. Rumania transferred Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to Russia. ("To preserve the possibility of avoiding serious conse¬quences which would result from the application of force and the outbreak of hostilities in this part of Europe, . . ." Times, June 29, 1940, p. 8.)
French announced truce in Syria. (Ibid., p. 1.)
Britain recognized General Charles de Gaulle as leader of Free French. (To fight Germany. Ibid., p. 9. Cf. Rice, p. 140.)
June 29. Foreign Minister Arita said Japan was the stabilizing force for the new order in East Asia and the South Seas. ("All man¬kind longs for peace, but peace cannot endure, unless nations have their proper places. Since this is difficult in the present stage of human progress, the next best thing is for peoples who are related geographically, racially, culturally, and economically to form spheres of their own. . . .
"The countries of East Asia and the regions of the South Seas are geographically, historically, racially, and economically very closely related. They are destined to cooperate and minister to each other's needs for their common well being and prosperity.
"The uniting of all these regions in a single sphere on a basis of common existence, insuring thereby the stability of that sphere; is a national conclusion." Times, June 30, 1940, pp. 1, 25. Cf. April 15, May 16, supra. Cf. Japan, Vol. II, p. 93.)
July 1. Germany, rejected American note of June 18. (". . . The German Reich . . . has given no occasion whatever for the assumption that it intends to acquire such possessions, . . . the nonintervention in the affairs of the American Continent by European nations which is demanded by the Monroe Doctrine can in principle be legally valid only on condition that the American nations for their part do not interfere in the affairs of the European Continent." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 54, p. 3. Cf. Peace, pp. 560 f.)
Rumania renounced British guarantee. (Cf. .Apr. 11, 1939, supra. At German request. Times, July 2, 1940, p. 1.) . Secretary of State Hull explained the Monroe Doctrine. ("It never has resembled, and it does not today resemble, policies which appear to be arising in other geographical areas of the world, which are alleged to be similar to the Monroe Doctrine, but which, instead of resting on the sole policies of self defense and of respect for existing sovereignties, as does the Monroe Doctrine, would in reality seem to be only the pretext for the carrying out of conquest by the sword, of military occupation, and of com¬plete economic and political domination by certain powers of other free and independent peoples." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 54, p. 4.)
EVENTS LEADING UP T0 WORLD WAR II 249
Germany asked the United States to withdraw diplomatic missions from Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxem¬burg by July 15. (Political questions would be handled through Berlin. Times, July 3, 1940, p. 3.)
Italy threatened to take action against Greece. (Italy "pos¬sessed proofs that British warships were using Greek territorial waters for the purpose of attack against the naval forces of Italy. This was an intolerable state of things . . ." Greek, p. 61.)
July 3. Britain sank or seized, part of French fleet at Oran. ("It is impossible for us now to allow your fine ships to fall into the power of our German or Italian enemies. We are determined to fight to the end, and if we win, as we think we shall, we shall never forget that France was our ally and that our interests are the same as hers find that our common enemy is Germany.
"And we solemnly declare that we shall restore her territory to France. For this purpose, we must make sure that the best ships of the French Navy are not used against us by the com¬mon foe." [British demands on French.] Times, July 5, 1940, p. 4. ". . . an armistice was signed which was bound to place the French Fleet as effectively in the power of Germany and its Italian following as that portion of the French Fleet which was placed in our power when many of them, being unable to reach French ports, came into the harbors of Portsmouth and Plymouth about ten days ago." Ibid., p. 4.)
King Haakon of Norway refused to consent to a National Council. (Cf. June 23, supra. "I cannot see that the Presi¬dential Board of the Storting has any constitutional basis what¬soever for modifying the lawful decisions of the Storting which have hitherto been taken. It is on the contrary quite evident that the whole of the proposed arrangement conflicts with the Constitution.
"I cannot see that I should be acting in the interests of the country by submitting to the demand addressed to me by the Presidential Board, . . ." Norway, p. 134.)
July 5. French Government broke off diplomatic relations with Britain. (Because of attack on French ships at Oran. Times, July 6, 1940, p. 1.) Pro Axis regime set up in Rumania. (Appointed by, King Carol. Ibid., July 5, 1940, p, l.. Cf. June 21, July 1, supra.)
July 9. French warships demilitarized at Alexandria. (By agreement with British. Ibid., July 10, 1940, p. 1.)
July 10. French Parliament voted away its own power. ("The Government must have all the power to decide, undertake, negotiate, and save what can be saved, destroy what must be destroyed, reconstruct what must be reconstructed. "The Government consequently asks Parliament, meeting in National Assembly, to give its full confidence to Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, President of the Council, to promulgate under his signature the responsibility and fundamental laws of a French State." Ibid., July 11, 1940, p. 4. Cf. Rice, p. 39.)
250 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
President Roosevelt asked Congress for additional appropria¬tions for defense. ("Again today, in less than 2 months' time, the changes in the world situation are so great and so profound that I must come once again to the Congress to advise concerning new threats, new needs, and the imperative necessity of meeting them. . . .
"In broad outline our immediate objectives are as follows:
"First. To carry forward the naval expansion program designed to build up the Navy to meet any possible com¬bination of hostile naval forces.
"Second. To complete the total equipment for a land force of approximately 1,200,000 men, though of course this total of men would not be in the Army in time of peace.
"Third. To procure reserve stocks of tanks, guns, artillery, ammunition, etc., for another 800,000 men or a total of 2,000,000 men if a mobilization of such a force should become necessary.
"Fourth. To provide for manufacturing facilities, public and private, necessary to produce critical items of equipment for a land force of 2,000,000 men, and to produce the ordnance items required for the aircraft program of the Army and Navy guns, bombs, armor, bombsights and ammunition.
"Fifth. Procurement of 15,000 additional planes for the Army and 4,000 for the Navy, complete with necessary spare engines, armaments, and the most modern equipment." Congressional Record [Bound], Vol. 86, Pt. 9, pp. 9399 9400. Cf. May 16, supra.)
July 11. Marshal Pétain decreed new basic laws for France. ("France stands alone, attacked today by England for whom she consented to many severe sacrifices.
"We have a most difficult task to accomplish for which I need your confidence. . . .
"International capitalism and socialism exploited and degraded France. Both participated in. preliminaries of the war. We must create a new order in which we no longer admit them." Times, July 12, 1940, p. 3. Cf. July 10, supra; also Rice, p. 40.)
July 12. Italian bombers hit two Greek naval vessels at Crete. (Greek, p. 68.)
July 14. Prime Minister Churchill reiterated British unity and resolve to proceed to all extremities to defeat Germany. ("I stand at the head of a Government representing all Parties. in the State–all creeds, all classes, every recognizable section of opinion. We are ranged beneath the Crown of our ancient monarchy. We are supported by a free Parliament and a free Press; but there is one bond which unites us all and sustains us in the public regard–namely (as is increasingly becoming known), that we are prepared to proceed to all extremities, to endure them and to enforce them; that is our bond of union in His Majesty's Government tonight. . . . This is no war of chieftains or of princes, of dynasties or national ambition; it is a war
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 251
of peoples and of causes. . . . This is a War of the Unknown Warriors; . . ." Times, July 15, 1940, p. 2.)
July 16. Japanese Cabinet resigned. (War Minister General Shunroku Hata forced its hand by resigning because he thought renovation necessary. Ibid., July 17, 1940, p. 1.)
July 18. Britain announced temporary stoppage of war supplies to China through Burma and Hong Kong. ("On June 24 the Japanese Government requested His Majesty's Government to take measures to stop the transit to China by way of Burma of war material and certain other goods. A similar request was made in respect to Hong Kong. Continuance of transit of these materials was represented as having a serious effect on Anglo Japanese relations. . . .
"His Majesty's Government, however, also were bound to have regard for the present world situation, nor could they ignore the dominant fact that we ourselves are engaged in a life or death struggle. . . . it was clear that tension was rapidly growing owing to Japanese complaints about passage of war material by the Burma route. . . . What we have therefore made is a temporary agreement in the hope that the time so gained may lead to a solution just and equitable to both parties of the dispute and freely accepted by them both." Ibid., July 19, 1940, p. 10.) .
July 19. Chancellor Hitler offered peace to Britain. ("For millions of other persons, great suffering will begin. Mr. Churchill, or perhaps others, for once believe me when I predict a great empire will be destroyed, an empire that it was never my intention to destroy or even to harm.
"I do realize that this struggle, if it continues, can end only with the complete annihilation of one or the other of the two adversaries. Mr. Churchill may believe this will be Germany. I know that it will be Britain." Ibid., July 20, 1940, p. 5.)
July 21. Esthonia, Latvia, Lithuania asked incorporation into Russia; (By resolution of newly elected Communist dominated parliaments which proclaimed them Soviet republics. Times, July 22, 1940, p. 1. Cf. June 15, 17, supra; also Latvia, pp. 108 f, 111 f.) Foreign ministers of the twenty one American republics met at Habana. ("A major purpose of the Habana Meeting is full and free consultation among the American republics with respect to the conditions, problems, difficulties, and dangers confronting each of them." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 56, p. 34.)
July 22. Lord Halifax rejected German peace offer. ("He [Hitler] says he has no desire to destroy the British Empire, but there was in his speech no suggestion that peace must be based on justice, no word of recognition that the other nations of Europe had any right to self determination, the principle which he has so often invoked for Germans. "His only appeal was to the base instinct of fear, and his only arguments were threats.
252 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
"His silence as to the future of nations whom on one false pretext or another he has subjugated is significant.
"Quite plainly, unless the greater part of the world has entirely misread his speech, his picture of Europe is one of Germany lording it over these peoples, whom he has one by one deprived of freedom." Times, July 23, 1940, p. 4.)
Secretary of State Hull said the American republics could not permit European possessions in the Western Hemisphere to become a subject of barter or a battleground in the settlement of European differences ("Either situation could only be regarded as a threat to the peace and safety of this hemisphere, as would any indication that they might be used to promote systems alien to the inter American system." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 57, p. 46.) and proposed a collective trusteeship of colonies. ("The purpose of a collective trusteeship must be to further the interests and security of all of the American nations, as well as the interest of the region in question. Moreover, as soon as conditions permit, the region should be restored to its original sovereign or be declared independent when able to establish and maintain stable self government." Ibid., p. 46.)
July 24. Rumania seized British oil company. (It failed to give right production data to the Petroleum Commission. Times, July 25, 1940, p. 6. Cf. July 5, supra.)
July 30. Inter American Conference at Habana adopted plan for joint trusteeship of European colonies in the Western Hemisphere likely to be transferred to Germany. ("Whereas:
"1. The status of regions in this Continent belonging to European powers is a subject of deep concern to all of the governments of the American Republics;
" 2. As a result of the .present European war there may be attempts at conquest, which has been repudiated in the international relations of the American Republics, thus placing in danger the essence and pattern of the institutions of America;
" 3. The, doctrine of inter American solidarity agreed upon at the meetings at Lima and at Panama requires the adoption of a policy of vigilance and defense so that systems or regimes in conflict with their institutions shall not upset the peaceful life of the American Republics, the normal functioning of their institutions, or the rule of law and order;
"4. The course of military events in Europe and the changes resulting from them may create the grave danger that European territorial possessions in America may be converted into strategic centers of aggression against nations of the American Continent; . . ."
Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 61, p. 138.)
July 31. The United States embargoed aviation gas beyond Western Hemisphere. ("In the interests of national defense." Ibid., Vol. III, No. 58, p. 94.)
Secretary of War Stimson spoke in behalf of compulsory military service. ("Today we are face to face with a potential enemy which not only has been conscripting and training its own
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 253
forces for the past six years but which today is putting conscription into effect upon its victims in Poland and France, and in Norway, Denmark, and Holland, in order that its own war sup¬plies may be more ample.
"We have been accustomed to think of our navy and the seas which surround our country as constituting a line of defense so strong that a powerful army was unnecessary. But today the great shipbuilding industries of Norway and Holland have passed into German hands. The fleet of Italy and her shipbuilding capacity are subject to German disposition.
"A prudent trustee must take into consideration the possibility that in another thirty days Great Britain herself may be conquered and her shipyards pass under German control. Many of the war vessels of France have already come under the control of Germany, and the same thing may occur in regard to the great fleet of Great Britain.
"In the Pacific Ocean the powerful fleet of Japan is owned by a power acting in close sympathy with Germany and Italy." Times, Aug. 1, 1940, p. 13.)
August 1. Japanese Foreign Minister Matsuoka announced new foreign policy for "Greater East Asia." (". . . the mission of Japan is to proclaim and demonstrate the imperial way throughout the world. Viewed from the standpoint of international relations, this amounts to enabling all nations and races to find each its proper place in the world. Accordingly, the immediate aim of our foreign policy at present is to establish a great East Asian chain of common prosperity with the Japan Manchukuo China group as one of the links. We shall thus be able to demonstrate the imperial way in the most effective manner and pave the way towards the establishment of world peace. Ibid., p. 11, Japan, Vol. II, p. 111.)
August 3. Japan protested ban on aviation gas. (Times, Aug. 4, 1940, p. 1.)
August 6. Secretary of State Hull said "each citizen must be ready and willing for real sacrifice of time and of substance and for hard personal service." ("The one and only sure way for our Nation to avoid being drawn into serious trouble or actual was by the wild and destructive forces now abroad elsewhere in the world and to command respect for its rights and interests abroad is for our people to become thoroughly conscious of the possibilities of danger, to make up their minds that we must continue to arm, and to arm to such an extent that the forces of conquest and ruin will not dare make an attack on us or on any part of this hemisphere. . . .
"I feel constrained thus to offer my views in the light of what is already a dangerously widespread movement for world conquest and for the destruction of most of the worthwhile things which civilization has given the human race." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 59, pp. 103 f. Cf. Peace, p. 564.)
254 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
August 8. Britain offered new constitution and partnership to India the war. ("His Majesty's Government are deeply concerned that unity of national purpose in India which would enable her to do so [make greater contribution to war effort] should be achieved at as early moment as possible. They feel that some further statement of their intentions may help to promote that unity . . . there is, still in certain quarters doubt as to the intentions of His Majesty's Government for the constitutional future of India and . . . there is doubt, too, as to whether the position of minorities, whether political or religious, is sufficiently safeguarded in relation to any further constitutional change by assurances already given." Commons, Vol. 364, cols. 402-404.)
August 9. British withdrew forces from Shanghai. (More needed here. Times, Aug. 10, 1940, p. 1. Cf. July 18, supra.)
August 14. Germany placed Luxemburg under German laws. (Its constitution was declared void because of the flight of the regent and government. Ibid., Aug. 15, 1940, p. 4.)
August 17. Germany announced total blockade of Britain. ("Germany is convinced that, with the announcement of the total blockade of the British Isles, a further decisive step has been taken toward termination of the war and removal of the guilty people at present in power in Britain. . . . The naval war in the waters around the British Isles is in full progress. "The whole area has been mined. "German planes attack every vessel. Any neutral ship which in the future enters these waters is liable to be destroyed." Ibid., Aug. 18, 1940, p. 25. Cf. Sept. 3, 11, Nov. 28, 1939, supra.)
August 18. Canada and the United States established a Joint Defense Board. (To "consider in the broad sense the defense of the north half of the Western Hemisphere." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 61, p. 154.) Ambassador William C. Bullitt said America was in danger. ("Our defense against the enemies who are already within our country has still to be organized. Nearly all our defense against the enemies that are still outside our country has still to be organized. If we won't act, our Government can't. It is up to us. "The fighting line of the war for the enslavement of the human spirit is nearing our shores." Ibid., p. 126. Cf. Aug. 6, supra.)
August 20. Prime Minister Churchill declared willingness to lease bases to the United States. (". . . anxiety was also felt in the United States about the air and naval defense of their Atlantic seaboard, and President Roosevelt has recently made it clear that he would like to discuss with us, and with the Dominion of Canada and with Newfoundland, the development of American naval and air facilities in Newfoundland and in the West Indies. . . . His Majesty's Government are entirely willing, to accord defence facilities to the United States . . . and we feel sure that our interests, no less than theirs . . . will be served thereby." Commons, Vol. 364, cols. 1170-71.)
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August 25. Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania ratified incorporation into Russian Soviet. (Times, Aug. 27, 1940, p. 4. Cf. July 21, supra.) Secretary of State Hull appealed for national unity behind defense program and related foreign policies. (". . . the possibilities of danger to the American Republics are real; . . . a threat to any important part of the Americas means a threat to each and all of the American nations." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 62, p. 176. Cf. July 10, 31, supra.)
August 30. Rumania lost half of Transylvania to Hungary. (In arbitration award of Germany and Italy. Times, Aug. 31, 1940, p. 4. Cf. July 5, supra.)
September 2. United States British destroyer bases deal completed. (". . . in view of the friendly and sympathetic interest of His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom in the national security of the United States and their desire to strengthen the ability of the United. States to cooperate effectively with the other nations of the Americas in defence of the Western Hemisphere, . . . in view of the desire of the United States to acquire additional air and naval bases in the Caribbean and in British. Guiana . . ." 54 Stat. Pt. 2, 2405.)
September 6. King Carol abdicated in favor of Michael in Rumania. ("Today misfortune has come upon our country. She finds her self facing grave peril. I want to eliminate these perils by turning over to my son, whom I know you love a great deal, every chance of being King. "I make this sacrifice to save the country. I pray God it will not be in vain." Ibid., Sept. 7, 1940, p. 4. Cf. July 5, Aug. 30, supra.) The United States announced proposed use of leased naval and air bases by other American Republics. (For "the common defense of the Hemisphere . . ." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 63, p. 196. Cf. Peace, p. 568.)
September 7. Bulgarian Rumanian agreement ceding Dobruja to Bulgaria signed at Craiova, Bulgaria. (". . . the favorable solution of the Dobruja question was achieved because of the friendly mediation and valuable. Support that was rendered to us by the leaders of the German and Italian nations." Times, Sept. 8, 1940, p. 45. Cf. June 18, supra.)
September 12. Ambassador Joseph Grew warned Secretary of State Hull Japan might interpret drastic embargo on oil as "sanctions" and retaliate. ("These dangers constitute an imponderable element which cannot be weighed with assurance at any given moment. However, it would be short sighted to deny their existence or to formulate policy and adopt measures without, fully considering these potential risks and determining the wisdom of facing them squarely." Peace, p. 571); only a show of force with determination to use it could be effective. ("Japan has been deterred from the taking of greater liberties with American interests only because she respects our potential power; equally is it (clear) that she has trampled upon our rights to an extent
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in exact ratio to the strength of her conviction that the people of the United States would not permit that power to be used." Ibid., p. 572. Cf. July 31, Aug. 3, supra.)
September 14. New United States naval policy called for a two ocean navy. ("To maintain the Navy in strength and readiness to uphold national policies and interests, and to guard the United States and its continental and overseas possessions." Times, Sept. 15, 1940, p. 27.)
September 16. The United States Selective Training and Service Act was approved. (54 Stat., Pt. I, 885-97. Cf. July 31, supra.)
September 22. Uruguay arrested eight Nazi leaders. (For conspiracy against the State. Times, Sept. 23, 1940, p. 1.) Japan and France concluded agreement on air bases and troop maintenance in Indo-china for Japan. (Japanese military authorities delivered ultimatum. Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 63, p. 197. Cf. Ibid., No. 66, pp. 253. Cf. Peace, pp. 572 f; Cf. Aug: 1, supra.)
September 25. The United States loaned China $25,000,000. (To support Chinese currency and the Chinese government. Times, Sept. 26, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Japan, ,Vol. II, p. 222.)
British withdrew from Dakar. (". . . it had never been the intention of His Majesty's Government to enter into serious war-like operations against those Frenchmen who felt it their duty to obey the commands of the Vichy Government." Times, Sept. 26, 1940, p. 4.)
September 27. German Italian Japanese 10 year military economic alliance pact signed at Berlin. ("The Governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan, considering it as a condition precedent of any lasting peace that all nations of the world be given each its own proper place, have decided to stand by and cooperate with one another in regard to their efforts in Greater East Asia and regions of Europe respectively wherein it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned." Ibid., Sept. 28, 1940, p. 3, Japan, Vol. II, pp. 164 ff.)
Secretary Hull's statement on German Italian Japanese alliance. ("The reported agreement of alliance does not, in the view of the Government of the United States, substantially alter a situation which has existed for several years. Announcements of the alliance merely makes clear to all a relationship which has long existed in effect and to which this Government has repeatedly called attention. That such an agreement has been in process of conclusion has been well known for some time, and that fact has been fully taken into account by the Government of the United States in the determining of this country's policies." Japan, Vol. II, p. 169.)
September 28. Under Secretary Sumner Welles stated the primary requirements of the United States in the Far East: "Complete respect by all powers for the legitimate rights of the United States and of its nationals as stipulated by existing treaties or as provided by the generally accepted tenets of international law;
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equality of opportunity for the trade of all nations; and, finally, respect for those international agreements or treaties concerning .the Far East to which the United States is a party, although with the expressed understanding that the United States is always willing to consider the peaceful negotiation of such modifications or changes in these agreements or treaties as may in the judgment of the signatories be considered necessary in the light of changed conditions." ("Unfortunately it is not possible for me to refer with any measure of satisfaction to the course of events in the Far East during these past seven years. . . . "The Government of Japan, however, has declared that it intends to create a `new order in Asia'. In this endeavor it has relied upon the instrumentality of armed force, and it has made it very clear that it intends that it alone shall decide to what extent the historic interests of the United States and the treaty rights of American citizens in the Far East are to be observed." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 66, p. 248.)
September 29. Madagascar rejected British ultimatum that it repudiate French Government. (Loyalty to Marshal Pétain. Times, Sept. 30, 1940, p. 1.)
Luxemburg was proclaimed within the framework of the Great German. Reich. ("Luxemburg derives from the German race and the population therefore must be treated as though it were, already German." Ibid., p. 3. Cf. Aug. 14, supra.)
October 3. Neville Chamberlain resigned as Lord President of the [British] Council. (". . . it has become evident to me that it will still be a long time before I could hope to be able to perform the duties which are essential for a member of the War Cabinet." Ibid., October 4, 1940, p. 6.)
October 4. Chancellor Hitler and Premier Mussolini met at Brenner. (Routine exchange of views. Ibid., Oct. 5, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Seat. 27, supra.)
October 5. Premier Konoye forecast war with the United States; ("If the United States refuses to understand the real intention of Japan, Germany, and Italy in concluding an alliance for positive cooperation in creating a new world order and persists in challenging those powers in the belief that the accord is a hostile action, . . ." Ibid., p. 1. Cf. Sept. 12, supra.)
October 7-8. Ambassador. Horinouchi protested refusal of export licenses for aviation gas and machine tools, and impending prohibition of export of iron and steel scraps to Japan. ("In view of the fact that Japan has been for some years the principal buyer of American iron and steel scrap, the announcement of the administrative policy, as well as the regulations establishing license system in iron and steel scrap cannot fail to be regarded as directed against Japan, and, as suck, to be an unfriendly act." Peace, p. 579; also "The discriminatory feature of the announcement, that licenses will be issued to permit shipments to the countries of the Western Hemisphere and Great Britain only, has created a widespread impression in Japan that it was motivated by a desire to bring pressure upon her." Ibid., p. 580.)
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October 8. Nazi troops entered Rumania. (To defend oil fields and train the Rumanian army. Times, Oct. 9, 1940, p. 9. Cf. Sept. 6, supra.)
The United States advised Americans to leave Far East. (". . . in view of abnormal conditions in those areas." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 70, p. 339.)
October 10. The United States froze Rumanian credits. (Because of German occupation. Times, Oct. 11, 1940, p. 1.)
October 11. Finnish Russian agreement on the Aaland, Islands signed. (". . . desiring to strengthen their security and foundations of peace in the Baltic Sea, . . ." Finland, p. 65.)
October 12. President Roosevelt said America aimed to defend the Western Hemisphere. ("We of the Americas still consider that this defense of these oceans of the Western Hemisphere against acts of aggression is the first factor in the defense and protection of our own territorial integrity. We reaffirm that policy, lest there be any doubt of our intention to maintain it. . . .
"We are building a total defense on land and sea and in the air, sufficient to repel total attack from any part. of the world. . . .
"The core of our defense is the faith we have in the institutions we defend. The Americas will not be scared or threatened into the ways the dictators want us to follow. . . .
"The people of the United States, the people of all the Americas, reject the doctrine of appeasement. They recognize it for what it is–a major weapon of the aggressor nations. . . .
"That is why we arm. Because, I repeat, this nation wants to keep war away from these two continents. Because we all of us are determined to do everything possible to maintain peace on this hemisphere. Because great strength of arms is the practical way of fulfilling our hopes for peace and for staying out of this war or any other war. Because we are determined to muster all our strength so that we may remain free." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 68, pp. 293 f.)
October 13. Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka invited the United States to join the Axis alliance.
("The new world order envisaged by the three powers, is one in which economic barriers will be broken down and the natural geographic divisions of the earth established in complementary fashion which will make for the prosperity of all peoples. . . . We three nations, Japan, Germany, and Italy, will be very glad to welcome other powers into our alliance, whether it be the United States or any other nation, should they desire, to join in the spirit of the new order." Times, October 14, 1940, p. 4. Cf. Feb. 1, supra.)
October 14. Repatriation plans for Americans in Far East announced. (Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 69, p. 318. Cf. Oct. 8, supra.)
October 15. The United States requisitioned planes ordered by Sweden. ("The Administrator of Export Control determined that the proposed exportation of these planes to Sweden would be con¬trary to the interests of the national defense. . . .
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 259
"The appropriate authorities of this Government having determined that these planes were required by the Army Air Corps for national defense purposes endeavored to negotiate and purchase these planes from the Swedish Government. These endeavors having failed, . . ." Ibid., No. 70, p. 338.)
October 16. United States Selective Service registration held. ("Today's registration for training and service is the keystone in the arch of our national defense. . . .
"The duty of this day has been imposed upon us from without. Those who duty of dared to threaten the whole world with war–those who have created the name and deed of total war–have imposed upon us and upon all free peoples the necessity of preparation for total defense." Messages, p. 71. Cf. Sept. 16, supra.)
Iron and steel scrap exports licensed to Great Britain and Western Hemisphere only. (". . . with a view to conserving the available supply to meet the rapidly expanding requirements of the defense program in this country." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 66, p. 250. Cf. Peace, p. 94. Cf. July 31, Aug. 1, 3, Sept. 22, 27, Oct. 5, supra.)
October 18. Britain reopened Burma Road. (Expiration of agreement; public opinion. Times, Oct. 18, 1940, p. 3. Cf. July 18, supra. ) Germany and Italy made demands on Greece. (For land concessions to Italy and Bulgaria, Greek air bases, reorganization of the government. Ibid., Oct. 19, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Oct. 8, supra.)
October 21. Prime Minister Churchill appealed to France not to hinder Britain in war against Germany. (". . . we do not forget the ties and links that unite us to France, and we are persevering steadfastly and in good heart in the cause of European freedom and fair dealing for the common people of all countries for which, with you, we draw the sword. . . .
"Remember, we shall never stop, never weary, and never give in, and that our whole people and empire have bowed themselves to the task of cleansing Europe from the Nazi pestilence and saving the world from the new Dark Ages. . . . We seek to beat the life, and soul out of Hitler and Hitlerism–that alone, that all the time, that to the end." Ibid., Oct. 21, 1940, p. 6.)
October 22. Chancellor Hitler and Vice Premier Pierre Laval conferred. (On the place of France in the new order in Europe. Ibid., Oct. .22, 1940, p. 1.)
October 23. Chancellor Hitler and General Francisco Franco conferred. (Ibid., Oct. 25, 1940, p. 1. ) Chancellor Hitler met Marshal Pétain. (For "a general examination of the situation, and particularly of means of reconstructing peace in Europe. The two interlocutors came to agreement on the principle of collaboration." Ibid., Oct. 27, 1940, p. 30. Cf. Ibid., October 30, 1940, p. 6: collaboration might "lighten France's sufferings, improve the fate of prisoners of war, reduce the cost of the German Army of Occupation and modify the line of demarcation.")
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The United States protested potential German use of French fleet. (". . . the fact that the French Government alleges that it is under duress and consequently cannot act except to a very limited degree as a free agent is in no sense to be considered as justifying any course on the part of the French Government which would provide assistance to Germany and her allies in their war against, the British Empire. The fact that a government is a prisoner of war of another power does not justify such a prisoner in serving its conqueror in operations against its former ally. . . . Any agreement entered into between France and Germany which partook of the character above mentioned would most definitely wreck the traditional friendship between the French and American peoples, would permanently remove any chance that this Government would be disposed to give any assistance to the French people in their distress, and would create a wave of bitter indignation against France on the part of American public opinion." Peace, pp. 580 f.)
October 25. Vice Premier Laval conferred with Italy. (On Pan European bloc. Times, Oct. 26, 1940, p. 1.)
October 26. Secretary of State Hull urged America to prepare to dis¬courage and repel any assault on her security. ("To have peace, we must have security. To have security, we must be strong. . . . Essential to effective national defense are constant and skilful use of political and economic measures, possession of' military weapons, and continuous exercise of wisdom and of high moral qualities. We must have planes and tanks and ships and guns. We must have trained men. We must hold to the ideal of a world in which the rights of all nations are respected and each respects the rights of all; in which principles of law and order and justice and fair dealing prevail. Above all, we must be a united people–united in purpose, and in effort to create impregnable defense.
"Thus can we maintain our inheritance." Bulletin, Vol. III, No. 70, p. 337. Cf. Peace, p. 590.)
Italians announced Greek Albanian border clash. (Terroristic plot. Times, Oct, 27, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Oct. 18, supra.)
October 27. General de Gaulle formed free government for France. ("As long as the French Government and the representation of the French people do not exist normally and independently of the enemy, the powers formerly performed by the Chief of State and by the Council of Ministers will be exercised by the leader of the Free French forces assisted by a Council of Defense." Ibid., Oct. 28, 1940, p. 1. Cf. June 28, supra. Cf. Rice, p. 152.)
October 28. Italy attacked Greece before expiration of ultimatum, creating a state of war. (Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 130, p. 554.) Chancellor Hitler met Premier Mussolini at Florence. (To decide on modus vivendi with France to replace armistice. Times, Nov. 2, 1940, p. 1.) State of war declared between Italy and Greece. (Italian invasion. Ibid., Oct. 29, 1940, p. 1. Italian note: "The Italian
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 261
Government has repeatedly noted how, in the course of the present conflict, the Greek Government assumed and maintained an attitude which was contrary not only with that of formal, peaceful, good neighborly relations between two nations but also with the precise duties which were incumbent on the Greek Government in view of its status as a neutral country." Ibid., p. 4. Cf. Oct. 18, supra. Cf. Greek, pp. 117 f.)
The circular of Premier Metaxas of Greece in reply to Italian declaration of war. ( `At 3 o'clock this morning the Italian Minister handed me in person a Note in which the Italian Govern¬ment accuse Hellenic Government of having tolerated the use by the British Fleet, in the course of its naval operations, of Greek territorial waters, coasts and harbours, of having facilitated the provision of supplies to the British air forces, and also, of having allowed the establishment of a military intelligence service directed against Italy in the Greek Archipelago. The Italian Government, says the Note, find themselves obliged to remind the Hellenic Government of the provocative attitude adopted towards the Albanian nation, * * *. He adds that Italy can no longer tolerate the continuance of this state of things; that the neutrality of Greece has become more and more of a pure fiction. The Italian Government have therefore decided to demand from the Hellenic Government, as a guarantee of the neutrality of Greece and the security of Italy, the right to occupy with their military forces, for the duration of the present conflict with Great Britain, certain strategic points in Greek territory. The Italian Government demand that the Hellenic Government shall not oppose this occupation nor hinder the free passage of the forces detailed to carry it out. The Italians Government request the Hellenic Government to issue at once to the military authorities the necessary orders, so that the occupation in question may be effected peaceably, and adds that, should the Italian forces meet with resistance, such resistance will be crushed by force and that the Hellenic Government will bear the responsibility for any consequences that may ensue. In handing me the above communication the Italian Minister added verbally that the Italian forces would start advancing into Greek territory at 6 a. m. I replied to the Italian Minister that I regarded the contents of this Note and the form of an ultimatum in which it was put as amounting to a declaration of war on the part of Italy against Greece. I add for your information that Greece will resist the Italian invasion with all her forces." Greek, No. 179, pp. 118 119.)
November 1. President Ismet Inönü, of Turkey, reaffirmed non-belligerency and friendship with Britain and Russia. ("Our attitude of non-belligerence does not need to constitute an obstacle to normal relations with all other countries which show the same good will.
"This attitude of non-belligerence makes it impossible without exception for belligerents to use our territory, our seas and skies, against each other, and it will continue too make such use categorically and absolutely impossible so long as we take no part in the war.
"Together with our ally, Great Britain, we now are studying and trying to envisage the results of the situation. We hope that
262 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
the political principles which I stated previously and which have to this day kept our country from the horrors of war will help maintain in the same manner our security of tomorrow. . . . In the midst of the world's vicissitudes, Russian Turkish relations are a fact of intrinsic value, . . ." Times, Nov. 2, 1940, p. 3.)
Marshal Pétain reassured President Roosevelt on the disposition of the French fleet. ("The French Government bas declared that the French fleet would never be surrendered and nothing can justify questioning today that solemn undertaking." Peace, p. 591. Cf. Oct. 25, supra.)
November 4. Secretary of State Hull protested to Ambassador Gaston Henry Haye possible military collaboration of Vichy Government with Germany. (". . . this Government is too much concerned about possible future attacks by Hitler to acquiesce in the slightest with acts of the French Government that would aid or encourage Hitler in still wider conquest, especially in the direction of this hemisphere." Peace, p. 595. Cf. Oct. 21, supra.) Spanish incorporation of the international zone of Tangier. (". . . in view of present circumstances." Times, Nov. 5, 1940, p. 7. Cf. June 14, supra.)
November 6. Franklin D. Roosevelt reelected President of the United States. (Quadrennial election. Ibid., Nov. 7, 1940, p. 1.)
November 10. German French definitive peace postponed until end of war with Britain. (Because of uncertainty and flux of points to enter the treaty. Ibid., Nov. 11, 1940, p. 1.)
November 12. Foreign Commissar Viacheslaf Molotoff Consulted with Chancellor Hitler. (To clarify and activate Russo German relations. Ibid., Nov. 13; 1940, p. 1. Russia demanded "a free hand to strike a 'final blow at Finland and liquidate us [Finland]." Finland, p. 104. )
November 14. France protested German expulsion of French speaking inhabitants from Lorraine. ("No measure of this kind was ever under discussion at the Franco German meetings." Times, Nov. 15, 1940, p. 1, Cf. Aug. 14, Sept. 29, supra.)
November 17. Chancellor Hitler conferred with King Boris of Bulgaria. ("In the course of a private stay in Germany." Ibid., Nov. 18, 1940, p. 2. Cf. Sept. 7, supra.)
November 18. Premier Mussolini. announced his intention to break Greece. (". . . since May Greece had offered the French and English all her air and naval bases. It was necessary to bring an end to this situation. . . . We have enough men and means to annihilate all Greek resistance." Ibid., Nov. 19, 1940, p. 4. Cf. Oct. 28, supra.)
November 19. Switzerland dissolved Swiss Nazi party. ("Investigation has shown that this movement was working for the trans¬formation of public institutions by other than constitutional means . . . the activities of such a group were of a nature to endanger public order and create conflict.
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 263
"The Federal Council has taken and will continue to take all measures necessary to maintain public order." Ibid., Nov. 20, 1940, p. 3. Cf. Sept. 22, supra.)
November 20. Hungary adhered to Axis tripartite pact. ("Germany, Italy, and Japan concluded an alliance to call a halt to further expansion of the war, which is severely burdening humanity, and thus give the world a lasting just peace as fast as possible.
"The big powers are fighting for the establishing of a new order promoting the development of peoples in regions to which they are entitled and in the furtherance of their well being.
"Hungary was thrown to the ground through the unjust, demoralizing Paris peace dictates and during two decades turned to those powers for help which were suffering an equal fate and the same injustices while fighting for their vital rights and re¬vision of the dictates. Ibid., Nov. 21, 1940, p. 6. Cf. Sept. 27, supra.)
November 23. Rumania adhered to Axis pact. (". . . we are carrying out a State act today which is not only historically important for the life and development of the Rumanian people but also for a Europe arising from the sacrifices of present day war.
"It is . . . a fundamental act of new orientation of the Rumanian State and an honest, actual contribution of the Rumanian people for the reconstruction of Europe and the world, as well as for defense of present day civilization, which will be rendered secure by the victory of States united in the three power pact.
"Animated by the desire to perfect her own forms of life, Rumania is firmly convinced her adherence to the great work of reconstruction of the world is the sole consequence of her own will for resurgence by the legionnaire movement, genitally and indissolubly with National Socialism and Fascism.
"Thus, our adherence to the three power pact, which took place today outwardly and formally, is a logical and natural result of a joining which long ago had taken place inwardly." Ibid., Nov. 24, 1940, p. 2.)
November 24. Slovakia adhered to Axis tripartite pact. (Slovakia had herself broached the subject of becoming a member of the Axis. Ibid., Nov. 26, 1940, p. 1.)
November 25. Bulgaria rejected Axis pact. (Because of internal crisis. Ibid., p. 1.)
November 26. The Belgian Congo announced a state of war with Italy. (To continue closest collaboration with Britain and her allies. Ibid., Nov. 27, 1940, p. 4. )
November 30. Germans annexed Lorraine. ("Lorraine's return to the Reich has closed an historical chapter which liberated age old German land and righted a political wrong. The century long battle for the Rhine has now been ended. Within this territory the complete economical and political union of Lorraine and Saarpfalz will be effected." Ibid., Dec. 1, 1940, p. 32. Cf. Nov. 14, supra.)
264 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
Japanese peace treaty signed with Wang Ching wei regime at Nanking. ("Being desirous that these two countries should respect their inherent characteristics and closely cooperate with each other as good neighbours under their common ideal of establishing a new order in East Asia on an ethical basis, establishing thereby a permanent peace in East Asia, and with this as a nucleus contributing toward the peace of the world in general, and
"Desiring for this purpose to establish fundamental principles to regulate the relations between the two countries, . . ." Japan, Vol. II, p. 117.)
The United States loaned another $100,000,000 to China. (As reaction to Japanese peace; for Chinese metals. Times, Dec. 1, 1940, p. 1.)
December 4. Britain and Turkey signed trade agreement. (To "bring about a considerable increase in trade through commercial exchanges." Ibid., Dec. 5, 1940, p. 7. Cf. Nov. 1, supra.)
December 6. Japanese Thai friendship pact signed. (As a result of Thailand's proposal for a nonaggression pact. Ibid., Dec. 12, 1940, p. 10.)
December 9. Foreign Minister Matsuoka said war with the United States was not inevitable. (". . . if both of us attend to our own business I cannot think there will be any serious clash. . . . We have no difference that cannot be surmounted if we keep our heads cool and mind our business. . . . We do not pass judgment on what the United States does in the West, and we try to confine ourselves to this part of the world." Ibid., Dec. 10,1940, pp. 1, 16. Cf. Oct. 5, supra.)
December 10. Britain loaned £10,000,000 to China. (Reaction from Japanese appeasement policy. Ibid., Dec. 11, 1940, p. 11. Cf. Oct. 18, Nov. 30, supra.)
Chancellor Hitler told the German arms workers there would be neither military nor economic defeat of Germany. ("I am not a man who, once he is engaged in a fight, breaks it off to his own, disfavor." Ibid., p. 4.)
December 11. British Ambassador, Lord Lothian, asked for more American aid. ("Hitlerism in the end must go down unless Admiral Mahan is all wrong. By ourselves we cannot be sure of this result–though we will try our best. Not only is there the situation in the North Atlantic I have described, but no one can yet tell when the constant pressure of Hitler both on the Vichy government to give him control of the French fleet and bases in the Mediterranean, and on Japan to extend the war in the Pacific, may lead to.
"But with your help in airplanes, munitions, in ships and on the sea, and in the field of finance now being discussed between your Treasury and ours, we are sure of victory–sure that the gangster menace to human freedom, the greatest the world has ever seen, will go down to the oblivion it deserves.
"But if ramparts fall, the war will inevitably cross the oceans and roll up against your shores. If Britain and the eastern shores of the Atlantic and the islands which lie off its shores, Iceland,
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 265
the Azores, or bases like Dakar fall into the dictators' hands, or if you are unable to defend the island fortresses in the Pacific, then the jumping off grounds go against you, the oceans become a passageway and your power to strike back at an enemy disap¬pears because you have no bases from which to do so." Ibid., Dec. 12, 1940, p. 4.)
December 12. Yugoslavia and Hungary signed perpetual friendship pact. (They wished to place their neighborly feelings, mutual esteem, and confidence on a solid and durable basis which would serve their mutual interests and Danubian peace and prosperity. Ibid., Dec. 13, 1940, p. 5.)
December 14. Marshal Pétain dismissed Pierre Laval from government. ("It is for high reasons of interior policy that I decided to take this action." Ibid., Dec. 14, 1940, p. 1. Cf. Rice, p. 67.)
Argentina and Uruguay signed agreement. (For joint defense of the River Plate. Times, Dec. 14, 1940, p. 1.)
December 17. President Roosevelt an a press conference suggested. lending arms to Britain. ("In the present world situation, there was no doubt in the minds of an overwhelming number of Americans that the best immediate defense of the United States is the success of Great Britain in defending herself. Quite aside from our historic and current interest in the survival of democracy, therefore, it is important from the selfish viewpoint of American defense that we should do everything to help the British Empire defend itself." Ibid., Dec. 18, 1940,p. 10. Cf. Dec. 11, supra.)
December 20. Four million aliens registered in the United States. (Registration of aliens law. Ibid., Dec. 21; 1940, p. 8.)
December 21. Germany asserted American aid to Britain was "moral aggression." ("Our interest is increasing because it is not tenable in the long run that in a discussion–be it in only the press–concerning questions which are of vital significance for political relations between two nations that one nation continually observe a restraint onto self effacement while the other permits a policy from morn until night of pinpricks, injury, insult, challenge, and moral, aggression." Ibid., Dec. 22, 1940, p. 5.)
December 22. Anthony Eden became Foreign Secretary in Churchill Cabinet. (Lord Halifax appointed British Ambassador to the United States. Ibid., Dec. 23, 1940, p. 1.)
December 23. Prime Minister Churchill appealed to the Italian people to shape its own fortunes. (". . . one man and one man alone has ranged the Italian people in deadly struggle against the British Empire and has deprived Italy of the sympathy and intimacy of the United States of America.
"That he is a great man I do not deny. But that after eighteen years of unbridled power he has led your country to the horrid. verge of ruin–that can be denied by none.
"It is all one man–one man, who, against the crown and royal. family of Italy, against the Pope and all the authority of the Vatican and of the Roman Catholic Church, against the wishes of
266 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II
the Italian people who had no lust for this war; one man has arrayed the trustees and inheritors of ancient Rome upon the side of the ferocious pagan barbarians.
"There lies the tragedy of Italian history and there stands the criminal who has wrought the deed of folly and of shame." Ibid., p. 4.)
December 29. President Roosevelt called for national effort to increase production of defense implements to meet threat to democracy. ("The Nazi masters of Germany have made it clear that they intend not only to dominate all life and thought in their own country, but also to enslave the whole of Europe, and then to use the resources of Europe to dominate the rest of the world. . . .
"Thinking in terms of today and tomorrow, I make the direct statement to the American people that there is far less chance of the United States getting into war, if we do all we can now to support the nations defending themselves against attack by the Axis than if we acquiesce in their defeat, submit tamely to an Axis victory, and wait our turn to be the object of attack in another war later on.
"If we are to be completely honest with ourselves, we must admit that there is risk in any course we may take. But I deeply believe that the great majority of our people agree that the course that I advocate involves the least risk now and the greatest hope for world peace in the future.
"The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask us for the implements of war, the planes the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security. Emphatically we must get these weapons to them in sufficient volume and quickly enough; so that we and our children will be saved the agony and suffering of war which others have had to endure.
"There is no demand for sending an American Expeditionary Force outside our own borders. There is no intention by any member of your Government to send such a force. You can, therefore, nail any talk about sending armies to Europe as deliberate untruth.
"Our national policy is not directed toward war. Its sole purpose is to keep war away from our country and our people. "We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious as war itself. We must apply ourselves to our task with the same resolution, the same sense of urgency, the same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we would show, were we at war." Messages, pp. 73 79 ; Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 8, pp. 3 8. Cf. Peace, pp. 600, 604 f. Cf. Dec. 17, supra.)
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