Make your own free website on



January. Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, German Minister of Economics, wrote [in Foreign Affairs, New York, January 1937] there would be no peace in Europe until the German colonial problem was solved. (Autarchy "will necessarily lead to a lowering of the standard of life of the German people. But we have no choice so long as political conditions do not permit German colonial activity. . . No great nation willingly allows its standard of life and culture to be lowered, and no great nation accepts the risk that it will go hungry. . . ." Ibid., p. 226.)

January 1. The supervision plan of the Non Intervention Committee was presented to both sides in Spain. (To secure consent for an international patrol to observe breaches of nonintervention. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 276.)

January 2. Britain and Italy signed a pact to maintain the status quo in the Mediterranean. ("Animated by the desire to contribute increasingly, in the interests of the general cause of peace and security, to the betterment of relations between them and be¬tween all the Mediterranean Powers, and resolved to respect the rights and interests of those Powers; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 87.) Portugal refused to cooperate in supervision of non interven¬tion. (". . . the proposal would in practice create such diffi¬culties to those nations agreeing to be represented on the delega¬tions in Spanish territory that complications were to be feared, . . ." Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 287.)
Premier Mussolini sent fresh troops to Spain. (As his interpre¬tation of the agreement with Britain on maintaining the status quo. See Dec. 31, 1936, supra. Ibid., p. 280.)

January 5. Danzig Polish harbor agreement extended. (See Aug. 5, 1933, supra. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 399.) Foreign Minister Hachiro Arita broadcast explanation of Japanese German Anti Comintern agreement, denying Japan's entry into the fascist bloc. (". . . there have been circulated abroad various rumors based upon either misconstructions or distortions. . . . The Japanese German agreement, which sim¬ply provides for the cooperation between the two countries in guarding against the activities of the Communist International, has nothing to do with the polity, the form of government, or the machinery of administration of Germany even if she happens to be under the Nazi rule. Moreover, Japan has a national policy of her own." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, pp. 306 f.)


January 7. Germany and Italy rejected the Anglo French proposal for control of admission of foreign volunteers to fight in Spain. (They objected to diplomatic procedure, wished to continue discussion in Non Intervention Committee, including question of withdrawal of those there. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 278 f.)

January 8. Senate Joint Resolution 3, 75th Cong., 1st sess., passed. (To prohibit the exportation of arms, ammunition, and imple¬ments of war from the United States to Spain. [50 Stat. Pt. I, 3.])

January 9. Agreement of neutrals on Chaco was initialed at Buenos Aires peace conference. (For neutral supervision; for mainte¬nance of the military status quo, and for freedom of commercial traffic. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 610.)

January 10. Polish Danzig negotiations about the League Commis¬sioner were concluded. (See Dec. 9, 1936, supra. For a tem¬porary détente. Ibid., p. 398.) The British Foreign Enlistment Act of 1870 was declared applicable to the war in Spain. (To check British volunteers. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 284.) Chancellor Hitler assured the French Ambassador to Berlin; André Francois Poncet, Germany had no designs on the territorial integrity of Spain or its possessions. (France had been worried over German activity in Morocco. Ibid., pp. 281 ff.)

January 12. Foreign Secretary Eden said Britain repudiated any division of Europe into the supporters of rival ideologies. (Not only would the widespread acceptance of such a fatalistic doctrine be highly dangerous to peace, but in our judgment it does not correspond to realities. Human nature is far too rich and too diversified to be hemmed in within such limitations." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 11.)

January 14. The United States instructed the American Consul General at Barcelona to discourage American volunteers. (". . . the enlistment of American citizens in either of the opposing forces in Spain is unpatriotically inconsistent with the American Government's policy of the most scrupulous non¬intervention in Spanish internal affairs." State Release 1937, No. 381, p. 37; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 619.)

January 15. The French Minister for Colonies said German agitation for colonies varied with requirements of Hitler's general European policy. (Cf. Rapprochement to England and later, German¬-Japanese agreement. "If the Government of the Reich so wished, it would have been able to procure for itself everything necessary to feed its people." [Unofficial translation.] Ibid., p. 252.) France passed laws prohibiting enlistment and transport of volunteers. (In acceptance of British suggestion to prohibit volunteers in advance. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 285.)

January 16. The German Naval High Command announced that warships and naval craft of foreign Powers thereafter had to obtain previous authorization to pass through the Kaiser Wilhelm


[Kiel] Canal. (To regain German sovereignty over German waters. Cf. Nov. 14, 1936, supra. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 379 f.)

January 17. Premier Mussolini rejected the idea of a United States of Europe. ("That is a Utopia, an impossibility with historical and geo political limitations. Here on our continent we are all too old; every State, every people, has its history, its peculiar innate sources, from which its racial and governmental charac¬teristics spring." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 265.)

January 19. Foreign Secretary Eden announced that Britain was ready to cooperate in the common work of political appeasement and economic cooperation. (". . . a new and freer economic and financial collaboration based Upon solid and well conceived political undertakings will be a powerful aid towards the estab¬lishment of a unity of purpose in Europe." Commons, Vol. 319, Col. 106.)

January 24. Bulgaria and Yugoslavia signed a treaty of perpetual friendship. ("Animated by the spirit of good neighbourliness, of mutual confidence and of sincere friendship, which characterizes the existing relations between their respective countries; "Firmly convinced that the consolidation and development of their friendly relations will result in the prosperity and well being of their two neighbouring nations, united by ties of brotherhood; "And desirous of contributing to the consolidation of peace in the Balkans; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 401.) Premier Léon Blum endorsed economic collaboration with Germany provided there was limitation of armaments; said cur¬rent problems were European rather than bilateral. (Peace was indivisible; France was unprepared to fight as was Britain. "There exists a necessary bond and unavoidable connection, be¬tween economic cooperation on the one hand and pacific organ¬ization and a halt to the armaments race on the other . . . `Peace' is the term which commands two others; for without peace there is no bread and in losing peace one always risks losing his liberty." [Unofficial translation.] Ibid., pp. 104, 106.)

January 29. Portugal said it would "neither return, cede, affirm, or partition" its colonies either with or without reservations. (Official statement of policy. Ibid., p. 256.)

January 30. Chancellor Hitler demanded return of German colonies, announced end of reparations provisions for the management of the Reichsbank and German railways as nongovernmental con¬cerns, and repudiated the war guilt clause of the Versailles treaty; said Germany was ready to guarantee the inviolability and neutrality of Belgium and The Netherlands. (Vindication of the honor of the German people. "Peace is our dearest treasure." Ibid., pp. 161 175, 186. Cf. German, No. 325, p. 351.)

February 4. General Senjuro Hayashi became premier of Japan. (Hirota Government resigned January 23. Survey 1936, pp. 897 f.) German Minister of Propaganda Josef Goebbels said bilateral pacts were better for peace than obscure collective ideas. (". . .


to banish all enmities which exist between us and others." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 176.)

February 13. The Netherlands informed Germany the latter's guaran¬tee of neutrality of January 30 was unacceptable. (". . . this in¬violability is for The Netherlands an axiom, which cannot suitably be the subject of an agreement concluded by The Netherlands." Ibid., p. 187.)

February 17. The Earl of Plymouth, Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, objected to the Open Door policy for British colonies in House of Lords speech. (". . . if effect were given to that proposal [Open Door] it would be impossible, for all time, to give full fiscal autonomy to any colonial dependency. . . . the only serious effect of a completely Open Door policy would be to favour trade with those countries which have an exceptionally low level of labour costs. However much this might be in keep¬ing with the teachings of the classical economists, it is impossible, in the present conditions of the world, for His Majesty's Government to admit that the play of blind economic forces should be allowed to work havoc with the established industrial and political systems." Lords, Vol. 104, Cols. 211, 219.)

February 20. Non Intervention Committee ban on foreign volun¬teers in Spain became effective. (Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 288. Cf. Dec. 22, 1936, supra.) Portugal consented to let British supervise her land frontiers. (Because of "confidence in her attitude of impartiality and of the alliance between the two countries." Ibid., Vol. II, p. 289. Cf. Jan. 2, supra.)

February 23. Chancellor Hitler promised to respect the integrity and neutrality of Switzerland. ("The existence of Switzerland answers a European need." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 196. Cf. German, No. 339, p. 361.)

February 24. Britain favored regional pacts to supplement League obligations. (". . . nations cannot be expected to incur auto¬matic military obligations except where their vital interests are concerned. . . . every State has some interests which are vital in certain parts of the world. . . . these regional pacts are in no way inconsistent with the Covenant itself, and on the other hand would, in our view, be an important factor in increasing the sense of general security throughout the world." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 21, 23.)

March 1. Joachim von Ribbentrop spoke on German claim to colonial possessions. (". . . on principle, for this is a right which belongs to every other nation, even to the smallest in the world, and Germany must formally reject every form of argument which seeks to dispute this right with her." Ibid., p. 266.) Italian Fascist Grand Council endorsed further rearmament program. (". . . after having heard a full report from the Duce regarding the state of our military preparations, considers it to be satisfactory, but, in view of the fact that any chance,


however remote, of a limitation of armaments is henceforth definitely to be excluded, . . ." Ibid., p. 266.)

March 3. Lord Halifax said Britain was interested in the fate of Central and Eastern Europe but was unable to define beforehand its attitude in hypothetical cases. (". . . those obligations [under the League Covenant] are not capable of achievement with precise exactitude, that is a feature–and I venture to think not an accidental feature–of the Covenant itself." Ibid., p. 30.)

March 5. France withdrew restrictions on gold deliveries. ("The lengthy economic crisis has caused a certain amount of demoralization. France is living in a state of closed economy, almost autarchy. "To attain normal prices we must balance supply and demand, wages and prices. Everything will be useless if the national economy receives fresh shocks. Therefore, we pause." Survey 1936, p. 195.)

March 8. Non Intervention Committee gave final approval for supervising land and sea traffic into Spain and planned to discuss the withdrawal of volunteers and prohibitions of indirect intervention. (Germany agreed to pay £10,000 in foreign currency to let scheme become effective. Ibid. 1937, Vol. II, pp. 291 f.)

March 9. President Giuseppe Motta of Switzerland said Chancellor Hitler's declaration of respect for the integrity of Switzerland was not indispensable. ("Swiss neutrality, the cornerstone of the international status of Switzerland, is recognized, without restriction or reserve, as much today within the framework of the League as it as formerly before the League's establishment." Doc. Int. Affairs. 1937, p. 197.)

March 23. Italy refused to discuss withdrawal of volunteers. (Because of defeat of Italian troops at Guadalajara. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 299.)

March 25. Italo Yugoslav treaty, respecting land and sea frontiers, provided for neutrality in case either party should be attacked by a third. (". . . convince that it is in the interests of their two countries as well as that of general peace to strengthen the bonds of sincere and lasting friendship, and being desirous of providing a new basis for this and of inaugurating a new era in the political and economic relations between the two States; "Persuaded that the maintenance and consolidation of a durable peace between their countries is also an important condition for the peace of Europe;" Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 302.)

March 27. Japanese refused to accept the 14-inch naval gun calibre limitation. (Objected to qualitative without quantitative limitations, because other powers had more 15-inch guns and Russia had two ships with 16-inch guns. Survey 1936, p. 112, Japan, Vol. I, p. 300.)


Foreign Minister A. C. de Graeff gave further reason for re¬jecting treaty with Germany guaranteeing the inviolability of Dutch territory. (". . . we could not have refused certain reciprocal engagements on our part, which might have been de¬manded of us. This would have involved us in a development contrary to our policy of strict independence of other States." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 188.)

March 31. General J. B. M. Hertzog said the Union of South Africa would "not consider any policy involving the return of South¬-West Africa to Germany." (". . . I regard South West Africa as a natural part of the Union, and am not prepared to allow it to fall into other hands." Ibid., p. 250.)

April 1. Provincial autonomy under new constitution became ef¬fective in India. (Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 618. Royal assent to Reform Bill had been granted Aug. 2, 1935. Ibid. 1935, Vol. I, p. 420. )

April 19. Franco formed the Spanish Traditional Falangists and the Youth of the National Sindicalist Offensive Party from the Monarchists and the Falangists. (To attain some semblance of a united front to which to attach both conservative and revisionist elements in the territory he occupied. Ibid., 1937, Vol. II, p. 121.)

April 20. Non Intervention Committee's patrol of Spanish land and sea frontiers to prevent entrance of volunteers and munitions went into operation. (See March 8, supra. Ibid., p. 297.)

April 24. Britain and France released Belgium from her Locarno obligations but continued to consider themselves bound to pre¬serve her territorial integrity. ("The Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of the French Republic have not failed during the last few months to give their full attention to the desire of the Belgium Govern¬ment to have the international rights and obligations of Belgium clarified in certain respects where this is rendered necessary by her geographical position and by the delays which may still occur before the negotiations and conclusion of the General Act intended to replace the Treaty of Locarno. "The Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the Republic, being anxious to give full expression to their sympathy with this desire of the Belgium Government, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1936;. p. 239; also Ibid. 1937, p. 190.)

April 29. Foreign Minister Paul Henry Spaak said right of passage of foreign troops across Belgium depended on her consent and common action of her neighbors. ("The first condition consti¬tutes the only interpretation compatible with our full sovereignty. . . . The second is laid down in the text itself." Ibid., p. 192; cf. Ibid., 1936, p. 247.) Yemen adhered to the treaty of Arab alliance between Iraq and Saudi Arabia April 2, 1936. ("Considering the bonds of Islamic fellowship and the national unity which unite us with their Majesties; and


"By reason of the fact that we feel, as do their Majesties, the urgent need of co operation between us and of reciprocal under¬standing regarding the affairs which concern the interests of their two Kingdoms and of our Kingdom; and "Being desirous of defending the security of our country and of their two countries; . . ." Ibid. 1937, p. 527.)

April 30. The Hayashi Government in Japan was defeated in a gen¬eral election. (Diet had been dissolved by Premier because of its revolt against Service ridden Cabinet. Government candidates were defeated because of the dictatorial line of the Cabinet with the Diet and because of the Army's usurping the work of the¬ Foreign Office and blocking social and economic reform. Survey 1937, Vol. I, pp. 167 f.)

May 1. The new American neutrality law was signed by the Presi¬dent. (Amending the Joint Resolution of February 29, 1935, supra. [50 Stat. 121.])

May 7. Egypt and Saudi Arabia signed a treaty of friendship. ("Im¬bued with the sincere desire to strengthen the bonds of friendship between them, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 528.)

May 8. The Nazis won two thirds majority in the Danzig Volkstag. (General election. Survey 1937, Vol. I, pp. 400 n., 614.) A convention ending capitulations for Egypt was signed at Montreux. ("Whereas the regime of Capitulations hitherto in force in Egypt is no longer in harmony with the new situation to which that country has attained through the progress of its insti¬tutions and whereas it should in consequence be brought to an end; "Considering that, following upon the abolition by common agreement of the said regime, there should be established be¬tween them relations based on respect for the independence and sovereignty of States and on ordinary international law; "Prompted by the sincere desire to facilitate the most extensive and friendly co operation between them . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 542 f.; Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 92, p. 14.)

May 11. Sir Neville Henderson was sent as British Ambassador to Berlin. (To facilitate the Anglo German rapprochement and maintain peace through appeasement. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 326.)

May 12. Danzig dissolved the German Nationalist party. (Members joined National Socialists. Ibid., pp. 400, 614.)

May 14 June 15. Imperial conference opened in London. (To discuss economic appeasement. Ibid., p. 63.)

May 17. The Negrin Government in Spain excluded the Anarcho-Syndicalists and Left Wing Socialists, but included two Com¬munists. (Caballero resigned May 15 following demands for reorganization and reaction against extremism. Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 110 f.)


May 21. Foreign Minister Emil Krofta said Czechoslovakia was con¬vinced "no fundamentally anti Czechoslovak policy can be attributed to Germany. Similarly we on our part most emphatically refute the accusation of anti German policy." (". . . the great similarity of many economic, social, and transport problems in Germany and neighboring Czechoslovakia facilitates. mutual understanding regarding them and. creates very favorable condi¬tions for collaboration . . . in such agreement, one of the primary conditions for appeasement in Central Europe." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 369.)

May 26. Egypt became a member of the League of Nations. (Through efforts of Britain and Iraq. See May 8, supra. Survey 1937, Vol. I, pp. 605 f.)

May 28. Spain protested Italian intervention to the League. (Active participation of complete army units as army of occupation under eminent Italian officials with Nationalists in battle. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 303.) Neville Chamberlain succeeded Stanley Baldwin as Prime Minister of Great Britain. (Baldwin resigned. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 329, 617.)

May 29. The League denounced the bombing of open towns in Spain and methods of warfare contrary to international law. (At behest of Britain and France who supplied such evidence. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 304.) Franco Turkish agreement signed guaranteeing the integrity of the Sanjak and of Syrian and Lebanese territory and of the Turco Syrian frontier, promising Turkish support for full independence for Syria and Lebanon. ("In accordance with the resolution adopted at Geneva by the Council of the League of Nations on January 27, 1937, and with the decision taken by the Council on to day's date. "Being desirous of determining the manner in which the two Governments will contribute towards ensuring the observance of the Statute and Fundamental Law of the Sanjak, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 506. Cf. Jan. 26, supra.)

May 31. Germany and Italy, withdrew from the nonintervention patrol. (After bombing of the Deutschland by Loyalist planes. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 305 314.) German warships bombarded Spanish city of Almeria. (London Times, June 1, 1937.)

June 4. Prince Fumimaro Konoye became premier of Japan. (Gen¬eral Hayashi resigned May 31, after losing support of Diet and chauvinists. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 168.)

June 16. Germany and Italy rejoined the nonintervention patrol. (Britain and France worked out an agreement to protect patrol ships from attack. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 316.)

June 22. German Foreign Minister Constantin von Neurath can¬celled his visit to London. ("As the situation which has arisen through the repeated Red Spanish attempts on German war


ships does not permit the absence of the Reich Minister for Foreign Affairs from Berlin, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 213.)

June 23. Germany and Italy withdrew again from the naval patrol scheme. (Because of alleged Spanish attack on the Leipzig and because Britain, and France refused to join a naval demonstration against Valencia. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 317 319.) Camille Chautemps Government succeeded drat of Blum in France. (The latter suffered defeat over his emergency powers bill June 21 and resigned. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 116.)

June 25. Foreign Secretary Eden repeated statement of Nov. 20, 1936, that Britain would aid France and Belgium, if victims of unprovoked aggression. (A statement of British position as reason for rearmament. Commons, Vol. 325, Col. 1602.)

June 28. Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Luxemburg, Norway, The Netherlands, and Sweden signed arrangement for the development of commercial interchanges. ("Desirous of pursuing in conformity with the principles expressed in the Oslo Protocol of December 22, 1930, the collaboration which, in the course of that year, they inaugurated amongst themselves in the economic sphere; "Considering, moreover, that the present time is favorable for undertaking a common action with a view to the expansion of economic exchanges in general; "And finally, being convinced that this object should be pur¬sued, in the first place, by proceeding progressively to the reduc¬tion of barriers to trade, to the abolition of exceptional defensive measures taken by the different States in order to protect them¬selves from the effects of the crisis, and to the adoption of meas¬ures conveying guarantees of stability more extensive and precise in their nature than those arising from the Oslo Convention; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 799 f.)

June 30. France devalued the franc to 3.83 cents from 4.35 cents: (Because of drain of capital; resources of the exchange equaliza¬tion fund were almost exhausted. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 116.) France passed emergency powers bill. Chautemps Govern¬ment agreed not to control exchange, compel loans, or force con¬version of rentes. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 116.) British observers were excluded from the Portuguese frontier of Spain. (". . . in view of the gap in the work of naval obser¬vation caused by the withdrawal of Germany and Italy from the naval patrol, . . ." Ibid., Vol. II, p. 323.)

July 2. Germany and Italy proposed granting belligerent rights to Franco. (". . . to make nonintervention as effective as pos¬sible . . ." Ibid., p. 325.)

July 6. Secretary of State Hull told Italian Ambassador Fulvio de Suvich economic collapse in Europe within 2 years was in¬evitable. (". . . the only foundation which Europe presents for a restored international order is the narrowest, cutthroat, trouble¬-breeding method of trading and a wild, runaway race in arma


ments; . . . the situation is merely drifting amidst increasing turbulence and uproar in Europe, as well as in certain other parts of the world . . . another war or a deep seated economic panic would be utterly destructive of all that is worthwhile in the affairs of the western world, and yet absolutely nothing in Europe is being done in the way of permanent planning in the direction of peace and general stability." Peace, pp. 366 f.)

July 7. The Peel report recommended partition of Palestine. ("While neither race can justly rule all Palestine, we see no reason why, if it were practicable, each race should not rule part of it." Survey 1936, p. 744.) Under Secretary Sumner Welles repeated the fundamental principles of American foreign policy. ("So that there may not be the slightest misapprehension." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 567. Cf. Sept. 15, 1936, supra.)

July 7 8. Fighting broke out between Chinese and Japanese at Lukouchiao. ("On the, evening of the 7th July, Japanese troops held illegal maneuvers at Lukouchiao, a railway junction of strategic importance in the vicinity of Peiping, where their presence could not be defended under any existing treaty or agreement. Alleging that one Japanese soldier was missing, Japanese troops demanded after midnight to enter the adjacent city of Wanping to conduct a search. When permission was refused by the Chinese authorities, the Japanese suddenly opened an attack on Wanping with infantry and artillery forces; and thus the Chinese garrison was compelled to offer resistance." Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 183. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, pp. 318 ff.)

July 8. Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Turkey signed pact of friendship and nonaggression. (". . . desirous of contributing by all means in their power to the maintenance of friendly relations and under¬standing between them, "animated by a desire to assure the peace and the security of the Near East by guarantees additional to those found in the Covenant of the League of Nations, and thus, to contribute to general peace, "cognizant of their obligations undertaken by virtue of the Treaty for the Renunciation of War as an instrument of National Policy, signed at Paris, August 27, 1928, and of other treaties to which they are parties, and in harmony with the spirit of the Covenant of the League of Nations and of the Treaty for the Renunciation of War, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 95, p. 33; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 531.)

July 11. Tentative agreement for settlement of Sino Japanese incident announced. (Japanese pressure. Survey 1937, Vol. I, pp. 184 f.)

July 12. Secretary of State Hull suggested to Ambassador Hiroshi Saito the futility of war. (Because of "the great injury to the victor as well as the vanquished in case of any important war in this day and time, of the great concern of this government for peace everywhere." Peace, p. 370.)


July 13. International observers for the Non Intervention Committee were barred from the French border of Spain. (As protest against Portugal's action. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 330.)

July 14. British submitted proposals on supervision of Spanish ports, belligerent right for Franco; and withdrawal of volunteers. (To avert the new and infinitely more dangerous situation which would arise without nonintervention. Ibid., p. 331.) German Polish agreement on frontier traffic in Upper Silesia signed. ("In view of the expiration on July 14 of the fifteen-¬year transition period provided by the Geneva Convention regarding Upper Silesia, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 197.)

July 16. China sent memorandum to signatories of the Nine Power Treaty. (To inform them of status and circumstances of the threat of Japan in North China. Ibid., pp. 652 ff.) Secretary of State Hull stated America's position in regard to international problems and situations as follows: "This country constantly and consistently advocates maintenance of peace. We advocate national and international self restraint. We advo¬cate abstinence by all nations from use of force in pursuit of policy and from interference in the internal affairs of other nations. We advocate adjustment of problems in international relations by processes of peaceful negotiation and agreement. We advocate faithful observance of international agreements. Upholding the principle of the sanctity of treaties, we believe in modification of provisions of treaties, when need therefor arises, by orderly processes carried out in a spirit of mutual helpfulness and accommodation. We believe in respect by all nations for the rights of others and performance by all nations of established obligations. We stand for revitalizing and strengthening of international law. We advocate steps toward promotion of economic security and stability the world over. We advocate lowering or removing of excessive barriers in international trade. We seek effective equality of commercial opportunity and we urge upon all nations application of the principle of equality of treatment. We believe in limitation and reduction of armament. Realizing the necessity for maintaining armed forces adequate for national security, we are prepared to reduce or to increase our own armed forces in proportion to reductions or increases made by other countries. We avoid entering into alliances or entangling commitments, but we believe in co operative effort by peaceful and practicable means in support of the principles hereinbefore stated." ("Any situation in which armed hostilities are in progress or are threatened is a situation wherein rights and interests of all nations either are or may be seriously affected. There can be no serious hostilities anywhere in the world which will not one way or another affect interests or rights or obligations of this country." State Release 1937, No. 407, pp. 41 f.; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 569 f. Cf. Peace, pp. 370 f.)


July 17. Germany and Russia signed naval treaties with Britain. (Cf. London Naval treaty of March 25, 1936, supra. Doc. Int. Affairs 1936, pp. 634, 641.)

July 19. Foreign Secretary Eden rejected policy of aggression or revenge toward any country. (To give "further categorical assurance" to Italy on the Mediterranean. Commons, Vol. 326, Col. 1805.)

July 20. Non Intervention Committee deadlocked over precedence of withdrawal of volunteers and reestablishment of control over land frontiers and granting of belligerent rights. (Russia and France insisted on the first, Germany and Italy on the second. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 335 f.)

July 21. The United States informally offered its good offices to Japan and China. (". . . when two nations comprising 500 million people are engaged in a controversy in which danger of general hostilities appear imminent, this country cannot help but be greatly interested and concerned; . . ." Peace, p. 371.)

July 25. Japanese Army decided on punitive action in China. (De¬termined to break Chinese will. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 189.)

July 27. General Sugiyama, Japanese Minister for War, asked full support of Diet in latest China incident. (". . . to surmount the situation and enhance the prestige of the nation." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 658.)

July 29. China refused longer to consider North China trouble as a matter for local settlement. (Relations with Japan were a national affair. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 192.) France and Britain concluded a convention abolishing capitu¬lations in Morocco and Zanzibar. (To complete establishment of French protectorate over Morocco. Ibid., p. 488.)

July 31. Germany concluded a most favored nation commercial agreement with the Franco Government in Spain. (To assure Germany economic penetration and supply of coveted iron ores. Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 193 f.)

August 3. Japanese bombed Chinese Central Government troops on train near Nankow. (As prelude to invasion. Ibid, Vol. I, p. 193.) Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano said there were no fundamen¬tal obstacles to an Anglo Italo rapprochement. (". . . one of the fundamental tenets of the Rome Berlin axis is in fact collaboration with all nations which desire to do so in the supreme interest of peace and civilization." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 288.)

August 9. Two Japanese in a naval landing party were shot west of Shanghai. (Chinese said Japanese tried to force entry into China aerodrome at Hungjao. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 210. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 341.)

August 10. The United States again informally offered its good offices to Japan and China. (Cf. July 21 supra. Peace, p. 374.)


August 11. Japanese began attack on Nankow pass. ("General Kiyoshi Katsuki said Chinese troop movements would inevitably lead to an extension of the sphere of conflict, and he preferred. to take the offensive before Chinese concentration was complete. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 193.)

August 13. Fighting began at Shanghai. (Japanese had reinforced naval command before settling Hungjao shootings Aug. 9. Chinese had sent in picked troops and placed boom across the Whangpoo to resist advance of Japanese beyond the settlement. Ibid., pp. 211 f. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 346.)

August 13 30. Attacks by "pirate" submarines on non Spanish ships in the Mediterranean. (The identity of the submarines was not officially known. Ibid., pp. 341 f.)

August 16. Japan said it harbored no territorial designs on China and would spare no efforts in safeguarding foreign rights and interests in China. ("The aim of the Japanese Government is none other than the realization of Sino Japanese co operation. Its only desire is to eradicate the anti foreign and anti Japanese move¬ment rampant in China, and completely to eliminate the fundamental causes of unfortunate incidents such as the present one, with a view to bringing about truly harmonious collaboration among Japan, Manchukuo, and China." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp: 659 f.)

August 17. Secretary of State Hull expressed concern over Shanghai incident. ("The issues and problems which are of concern to this Government in the present situation in the Pacific area go far beyond merely the immediate question of protection of the nationals and interests of the United States. The conditions. which prevail in that area are intimately connected with and have a direct and fundamental relationship to the general principles of policy to which attention was called in the statement of July 16, . . ." State Release 1937, No. 413, pp. 166 f.; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 587 f.)

August 18. Portugal broke diplomatic relations with Czechoslovakia. (Because of dispute over guns for rearmament. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 613.)

August 21. Russia concluded a five year nonaggression pact with China. (". . . animated by the desire to contribute to the maintenance of general peace, to consolidate the amicable rela¬tions now existing between them on a firm and lasting basis, and to confirm in a more precise manner the obligations mutually undertaken under the Treaty for the Renunciation of War signed in Paris, August 27, 1928, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 664.)
Spain protested Italian "piracy" to the League Council. (Under Art. 11 of the Covenant. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 342.)

August 23. Japanese troops landed at Woosung. (To begin outflank¬ing movement of attack. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 215.)


August 26. British Embassy cars attacked by Japanese. (". . . the incident may have been caused by Japanese planes which mistook the Ambassador's motor for a military bus or truck." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 668.)

August 30. Chinese notified the League of Sino Japanese events since July. (To bring to attention of authorities. Ibid., pp. 669 ff.)

September 2. British accepted French proposal for international conference on "piracy." (Best hope for solution was extra-non¬intervention committee. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 344.)
Ambassador Joseph C. Grew was instructed to avoid involve¬ment and protect American lives, property, and rights. ("The first solicitude of the United States, however, will have to be, not for the maintenance of unqualified good will by either or both of the combatants toward the United States, but for the welfare of the American people and for the general policies and broad inter¬ests of the United States, guided by laws, treaties, public opinion, and other controlling considerations." Peace, p. 378.)

September 4. South Charhar Government set up at Kalgan. (Through Japanese instigation. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 249.)

September 5. Foreign Minister Koki Hirota told Diet Japan should compel China to mend her ways. ("Since China, ignoring our true motive, has mobilized her vast armies against us . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 664. Cf. Japan Vol. I, p. 367.)

September 6. Britain and France issued invitation to a "piracy" con¬ference at Nyon. (To "end the present state of insecurity in the Mediterranean and to ensure that the rules of international law regarding shipping at sea shall be strictly enforced . . ." Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 345. Cf. Aug. 13 30, supra.)

September 7. Chancellor Hitler said German demand for colonies was based on economic needs. (". . . a single question which for years has continuously caused us the deepest anxiety: it is the difficulty of our food supply (Lebensmittelversorgung). Without colonies Germany's living room (Lebensraum) is too small to guarantee an undisturbed, assured, and permanent food sup¬ply. . . . The thought of being permanently dependent on the accident of a good or bad harvest is intolerable. . . . the attitude adopted to this demand by other Powers is simply in¬comprehensible." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 231.)

September 9. Germany and Italy refused to attend the "piracy" con¬ference. (They considered it a matter for the nonintervention committee to handle. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 345 f.)

September 11. Japanese offensive against the Chinese armies south of Peiping and Tientsin begun. (Controlled Nankow pass. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 198 f. Cf. Aug. 11 and 15 and Sept. 5, supra.)


September 12. China invoked Articles 10, 11, and 17 of the Covenant against Japan in a further statement to the League. (". . . to advise upon such means and take such action as may be appropriate and necessary for the situation under the said articles." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 674. Cf. Aug. 30, supra.)

September 14. Foreign Secretary Eden asked League Council for authority to work out details of a partition plan for Palestine. (". . . to appoint a further special body to visit Palestine, to negotiate with Arabs and Jews . . ." Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 559.)
Britain, France, Russia, and certain other countries agreed to suppress "piracy" in the Mediterranean. ("Whereas arising out of the Spanish conflict attacks have been repeatedly committed in the Mediterranean by submarines against merchant ships not belonging to either of the conflicting Spanish parties; and
"Whereas these attacks are violations of the rules of international law referred to in Part IV of the Treaty of London of April 22, 1930 with regard to the sinking of merchant ships and constitute acts contrary to the most elementary dictates of humanity, which should be justly treated as acts of piracy; and
"Whereas without in any way admitting the right of either party to the conflict in Spain to exercise belligerent rights or to interfere with merchant ships on the high seas even if the laws of warfare at sea are observed and without prejudice to the right of any participating Power to take such action as may be proper to protect its merchant shipping from any kind of interference on the high seas or to the possibility of further collective measures being agreed upon subsequently, it is necessary in the first place to agree upon certain special collective measures against piratical acts by submarines: . . ." Treaty Inf. 1937 No. 96, p. 17.

"Whereas under the Arrangement signed at Nyon on the 14th September, 1937, whereby certain collective measures were agreed upon relating to piratical acts by submarines in, the Mediterranean, the Participating Powers reserved the possibility of taking further collective measures; and
"Whereas it is now considered expedient that such measures should be taken against similar acts by surface vessels and aircraft; . . . Ibid., p. 20.)
President Roosevelt forbade American Government owned ships to carry munitions to China and Japan. (To avoid a situation in which Japan might interfere with American vessels and to avert action that would encourage Japan to extend blockade to neutral shipping. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 270; State Release 1937, No. 146, p. 227; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 588 f. Cf. Peace, p. 380.)
Poland protested Danzig interference with mails. (Danzig police confiscated prohibited Polish newspapers. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 402.)


September 15. Wellington Koo, Chinese Delegate, warned the League Council of injury to foreign interests in the Far East and the possibility of a world conflict if Japanese aggression in China went unchecked. ("Japan is once more in the grip of the war party, which revels in keeping the people in a fearful state of war psycho¬sis at home in order to usurp political power in Japan and achieve territorial conquest abroad. It exalts might and recognizes no right except that which is backed by the sword; it consecrates force as the arbiter of the destiny of nations; it glorifies war as an instrument of empire building. Its idea of peace in the Far East is the `Pax Japonica,' and its conception of order, abject accept¬ance of Japanese domination. . . . Let it be recalled that this policy aims not only at the political domination and conquest of China, but also at the elimination of foreign interests wherever the Japanese sword holds sway, and the eventual expulsion of Europe and America from their territorial possessions in Asia." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 676.)

September 16. League Council referred Chinese plea for assistance to Far Eastern Committee. (". . . the terms of reference . . ." Ibid., p. 679.)

September 19. Secretary of State Hull warned that an imposed peace was but a temporary one. ("For acts of conquest leave behind ruined, hostile, and bitter peoples. They create fear everywhere, and this fear prevents friendship and stimulates the rival war preparations that make for future conflict. A country which embarks upon war with the thought that lasting peace lies in the complete overcoming of its enemies will find that the future still holds enemies." Ibid., p. 572; State Release 1937, No. 417, p. 241.

September 19 25. Successive air raids on Nanking and Canton by Japanese. (". . . acts of wanton destruction and terrorization on the part of the Japanese forces, and in utter disregard of all rules of international, law, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 682.)

September 20. Leland Harrison, American Minister to Switzerland, was instructed to attend meetings of the Far Eastern Advisory Committee of the League. (". . . believing thoroughly in the principle of collaboration among States of the world, seeking to bring about peaceful solutions in international conflicts, will be prepared to give careful consideration to definite proposals which the League may address to it, but will not, however, be prepared to state its position in regard to policies or plans submitted to it in terms of hypothetical inquiry." State Release 1937, No. 417, p. 255; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 680.) Foreign Secretary Eden said Britain was ready to discuss abatement of particular preferences which placed undue restric¬tion on trade. (". . . as part of the efforts now being made to effect economic and political appeasement and to increase inter¬national trade. . . ." Ibid., p. 246.)

September 21. Secretary of State Hull said peace was the cornerstone of international preservation. (". . . for nations today are so interdependent that the repercussions of war affect neutrals


only a few degrees less than they affect belligerents." State Release 1937, No. 417, p. 250; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 579.)

September 22. The United States protested bombing of Nanking to Japan. (". . . any general bombing of an extensive area wherein there resides a large populace engaged in peaceful pursuits is unwarranted and contrary to principles of law and of humanity. Moreover, in the present instance the period allowed for with¬drawal is inadequate, and, in view of the wide area aver which Japanese bombing operations have prevailed, there can be no assurance that even in areas to which American nationals and noncombatants might withdraw they would be secure . . . experience has shown that, when and where aerial bombing opera¬tions are engaged in, no amount of solicitude on the part of the authorities responsible therefor is effective toward insuring the safety of any persons or any property within the area of such operations . . . these operations almost invariably result in ex¬tensive destruction of noncombatant life and non military, es¬tablishments." State Release 1937, No. 417, p. 256; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 683. Cf. Sept. 19 25, supra.)

September 23. Germany refused League invitation to participate on Far Eastern Advisory Committee. Ibid., p. 681.

September 25. Japan refused League invitation to participate on Far Eastern Advisory Committee. (". . . the Imperial Govern¬ment, as it has stated on many occasions, is firmly convinced that a just, equitable, and practical solution of the questions con¬cerning Japan and China can be found by the two countries." Ibid., p. 681.)

September 28. League Assembly condemned Japanese air raids on China. (At instigation of Great Britain. Ibid., p. 685. Cf. Sept. 19 25, 22, supra.)
Secretary of State Hull cabled Minister Leland Harrison the United States did not wish "to suggest either the limits or the direction of action to be considered and decided upon by the League." ("The United States has been approached on several occasions by certain other Governments with suggestions for `joint action,' and it has regularly been indicated that, while we believe in and wish to practice cooperation, w e are not prepared to take part in joint action, though we will consider the possible taking of parallel action. Whenever possible action which has been thought of also by other governments has begin regarded as being intrinsically meritorious, action has been taken, several times prior to and sometimes without parallel action by any other government. In general, it is felt that spontaneous separate action on parallel lines, should two or more governments feel moved thereto anywhere, indicates more strongly serious feeling regarding matters under consideration and is more likely effec¬tively to serve to attain the objectives sought than would inspired joint action . . . In action taken thus far, we feel that the United States has gone further in making efforts calculated to strengthen general principles of world peace and world security


and in indicating toward disregard of them disapprobation and disapproval than any other government or group of nations has gone. Therefore, it is felt that other nations might now well direct their efforts to go as far as or further than the United States thus far has gone along these lines." Peace, pp. 381 ff.)

September 30. Italy agreed to join the Mediterranean "anti-piracy" patrol. (Premier Mussolini had refused patrol of the Tyrrhenian Sea as unbecoming a great power; Italy assumed patrol of zones in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean and that between the Balearic islands and Sardinia as well as the Tyrrhenian Sea. Survey 1937, Vol. II, pp. 351 f.) ,

October 1. Palestine declared the Arab High Committee and all national committees unlawful. (Because of persistent terrorism and the murder of the acting district commissioner of Galilee. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 569.)

October 5. President Roosevelt delivered the "quarantine" speech at Chicago. ("It seem to be unfortunately true that the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading." State Release 1937, No. 419, p. 279; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 586. Cf. Peace, pp. 383 ff.)

October 6. League Assembly declared Japan violator of the Nine Power Treaty; proposed a conference of signatories. (". . . all con¬tracting Powers, including China, agreed that, whenever a situa¬tion should arise which involved the application of the stipula¬tions of the Treaty and rendered desirable the discussion of such application, there should be full and frank communication between the Powers concerned." Ibid., pp. 698, 701.)
The United States expressed official approval of League con¬clusions. ("In the light of the unfolding developments in the Far East, the Government of the United States has been forced to the conclusion that the action of Japan in China is inconsistent with the principles which should govern the relationship between nations and is contrary. to the provisions of the Nine Power Treaty of February 6, 1922, regarding principles and policies to be followed in matters concerning China, and to those of the Kellogg Briand Pact of August 27, 1928. Thus the conclusions of this Government with respect to the foregoing are in general accord with those of the Assembly of the League of Nations." State Release 1937, No. 419, p. 285; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 590 ff., p. ,702. Cf. Peace, p. 49.)
The United States issued statement of principles to govern international relations to maintain peace: ". . . abstinence by all nations from the use of force in the pursuit of policy and from interference in the internal affairs of other nations; adjustment of problems in international relations by process of peaceful negotiation and agreement; respect by all nations for the rights of others and observance by all nations of established obligations; and the upholding of the principle of the sanctity of treaties." (Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 97, p. 10; Peace, p. 387.)

October 8. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain endorsed President Roosevelt's "Quarantine" speech. ("In his declaration of the necessity for a return to a belief in the pledged word and the


sanctity of treaties he has voiced the convictions of this country as well as of his own, and in his call for a concerted effort in the cause of peace he will have this Government wholeheartedly with him. . . " Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 49.) Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg spoke again of the German mission of Austria. (". . . We will continue to fulfill this mis¬sion, not because it is prescribed for us to do so, but of our own free will and upon our own initiative, as the history and spirit of our Fatherland indicate. . . I see no differences which need, sep¬arate the capitals, the State Chancelleries, and the people here and over there, so long as the one is willing to leave the other free and undisturbed to manage his own house. . . ." Ibid., p. 311, Cf. July 11, Nov. 26, 1936, Supra.)

October 9. Japan issued statement denying that action in China vio¬lated existing treaties in any way whatever. [Cf. Oct. 6, Supra.] ("The League of Nations regards Japan's action in China as violation of the Nine Power Treaty and the Anti War Pact. The United States published a statement to the same effect. This was due to misunderstanding of Japan's true intentions." Ibid., p. 702; Japan, Vol. I, p. 399.)

October 12. General Jan C. Smuts said the Union of South Africa stood or fell by the mandate over South West Africa. ("That was the policy of the of the old Nationalist Party, as well as of .the old South African Party, and under that assurance thousands of South Africans, mostly Afrikaans speaking, have gone to live in the Mandated Territory. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 250.)

October 13. Germany notified Belgium she intended to respect the integrity of Belgium and support her if she were attacked, unless Belgium joined military action against Germany. ("As the conclusion of a Treaty designed to replace the Pact of Locarno can still take a considerable time, in the desire to strengthen the peaceful efforts of the two countries, . . . the inviolability and integrity of Belgium are common interests of the Western Powers." Ibid., p. 192. Cf. Ibid., pp. 193 ff. Cf. German No. 333, p. 356.)

October 14. Nicaragua complained to the League about Honduran treatment of Nicaraguans and Honduran attitude in frontier dispute. (Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 618.)

October 15. Belgium invited the signatories of the Nine Power Treaty to convene at Brussels Oct. 30. ("In compliance with the request of the Government of Great Britain, made with the approbation of the Government of the United States of Amer¬ica, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 703.) Foreign Secretary Eden promised Britain's hearty cooperation, in the spirit of the "Quarantine" speech, at the Nine Power meeting. ("That is our spirit also. . . ." Ibid., p. 51.)

October 18. Sudeten Germans demanded immediate autonomy for German districts. (After incident with police Oct. 17. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 454.)


October 19. Italy imposed 10 percent capital levy on stock companies and raised sales taxes. (To finance costs of conquest of Ethiopia, its exploitation, and further rearmament. Ibid., p. 51 n.)
The United States designated Norman Davis its representative to the Nine Power Conference. (". . . in response to an invitation issued by the Belgian Government." State Release 1937, No. 421, p. 313; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 591.)

October 21. Dissolution of Catholic Centre party in Danzig. (After raids on houses of Centre politicians because one was alleged to have had illegal relations with the Vatican. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p: 401.)
The United States, Costa Rica, and Venezuela offered mediation to Nicaragua and Honduras. (To "facilitate a pacific solution of the boundary controversy." See Oct. 14, supra. Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 97, p. 4, and State Release 1937, No. 421, p. 315.)
Prime Minister Chamberlain said it was a mistake to go to the Nine Power Conference talking about economic sanctions, economic pressure, and force. ("We are here to make peace, not here to extend the conflict. The first thing we have to do is to see what means, by concerted effort, can be brought to bear in order to bring about the peaceful solution. of the problem." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 60.)

October 23 24. Anti Jewish riots in Danzig. (Following extensive anti Semitic campaign. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 401.)

October 26. Federated autonomous government for Inner Mongolia announced. (Following Japanese conquest of Suiyuan and the organization of. a Peace Maintenance Commission at Kweibua. Ibid., p. 249.)

October 27. Japan declined to attend Brussels Conference on Sino-¬Japanese dispute. ("The action of Japan in China is one of self¬-defense which she has been compelled to take in the face of China's violent anti Japanese policy and practices, exemplified particularly in her provocative acts in appealing to force of aims. Consequently Japan's action lies, as has been declared already by the Imperial government, outside the purview of the Nine Power Treaty . . . an attempt to seek a solution at a gathering of so many powers . . . would only serve to complicate the situation still further and to place serious obstacles in the path of a just and proper solution." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 703 5; cf. Ibid., pp. 705 709.)

October 29. Germany declined Belgian invitation to participate in the Nine Power Conference. ("As Germany is not a party to the treaty [Nine Power] . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 174.)

November 1 16. International conference on repression of terrorism re¬sulted in conventions on prevention and punishment and an inter¬national criminal court. (Result of assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia, see Oct. 9, 1934, Supra. Ibid., p. 849.)


November 3. Nine Power Conference on Sino Japanese dispute at Brussels. (". . . In conformity with Article VII of that treaty to examine the situation in the Far East and to study peaceable means of hastening the end of the regrettable conflict which pre¬vails there." Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 97, p. 8; cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 714 728.)

November 5. German Polish minorities declaration made. (". . . the treatment of these minorities is a matter of great importance, for the further development of friendly relations between Ger¬many and Poland, and that in both countries the well being of the minority is better protected when it is certain that the same principles will be observed in the other country." Ibid., p. 199.)

November 6. Italy joined the German Japanese Anti Comintern pact. ("Considering that the Communist International continues con¬stantly to endanger the civilized world in the West and East, disturbs and destroys its peace and order,

"Convinced that close cooperation between all states interested in maintaining peace and order can alone diminish and remove this danger, "Considering that Italy, which since the beginning of the Fascist Government has combated this danger with inflexible determination and has eradicated the Communist International in its territory, . . ." Ibid., p. 307, Japan, Vol. II, p. 159.) "By this step Italy has thus forged the third side of the German¬-Italian Japanese anti communist triangle and has definitely placed Japan in the so called fascist block of nations. This event further marks the definite termination of Japan's period of political and moral isolation which followed the Manchurian venture in 1931 and also emphasizes the abandonment of Japan's previous and almost traditional alignment with the democratic powers. * * * * * The threat to England is very real and immediately apparent upon reflection that with the addition of Japan to the Rome-¬Berlin axis the life line of the British Empire is threatened from the North Sea through the Mediterranean and beyond Singa¬pore." (Dispatch from Ambassador Grew at Tokyo, Nov. 13, 1937, Japan, Vol., II, p. 160.)

November 7. Nine Power Conference invited Japan to confer with a¬ small group on Sino Japanese differences. ("Its aims would be to throw further light on the various points referred to above and to facilitate a settlement of the conflict. Regretting the continuation of hostilities, being firmly convinced that a peace¬ful settlement is alone capable of ensuring a lasting and construc¬tive solution of the present conflict, and having confidence in the efficacy of methods of conciliation, the representatives of the States met at Brussels earnestly desire that such a settlement may be achieved." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 740.)

November 8. Danzig forbade by decree formation of new political parties. (They were "associations liable to conflict with public order," hence contrary to the Constitution. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 401.)


November 11. Italian participation in piracy patrol became effective. (See Sept. 30, supra. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 352.)

November 12. Japan again refused to attend Brussels Conference. (". . . the Imperial Government adheres firmly to the view that its present action, being one of self defence force upon Japan by the challenge of China, lies outside the scope of the Nine-¬Power Treaty, and that there is no room for discussion of the question of its application. It is certainly impossible to accept an invitation to a Conference convened in accordance with the stipulations of that Treaty after Japan has been accused of having violated its terms. Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 741; cf. Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 98, p. 12, cf. Oct. 27 supra.)
Haiti invited the United States, Cuba, Mexico to mediate its trouble with Dominican Republic. (Over Haitian emigrants killed early in October ". . . inspired by the spirit of friendship and solidarity advocated by the inter American agreements con¬cluded in the interest of the maintenance of peace between the peoples of this hemisphere, . . ." State Release 1937, No. 425, p. 379.)

November 13. Wellington Koo asked Nine Power Conference for con¬certed action of a moral, material, financial, and economic char¬acter. ("Now that the door to conciliation and mediation has been slammed in your face by the latest reply of the Japanese Gov¬ernment, . . . International peace, Mr. President, like national peace, if it is to be made durable, must be defended." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 743.)

November 14. The United States consented to mediate between Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
("The Government of the United States possesses no more sincere hope than that the maintenance of peace between the American republics may be firmly assured and that the friendship and understanding between them may be constantly en¬hanced. In the hope that it may thereby promote that ideal, the Government of the United States stands ready to join in extending its friendly services in an effort to further the attain¬ment of a pacific solution of the present controversy, satisfactory to both parties thereto . . ." State Release 1937, No. 425, pp. 379 f.)

November 15. Nine Power Conference adopted Anglo Franco Ameri¬can declaration chiding Japan as aggressor. ("It cannot be denied that the present hostilities between Japan and China adversely, affect not only the rights of all nations but also the material interests of nearly all nations. . . . "The representatives met at Brussels therefore regard these hostilities, and the situation which they have brought about, as matters inevitably of concern to the countries which they represent and–more–to the whole world. To them the problem appears not in terms simply of relations between two countries in the Far East but in terms of law, orderly processes, world security, and world peace.


"The representatives met at Brussels are moved to point out that there exists no warrant in law for the use of armed force by any country for the purpose of intervening in the internal regime of another country and that general recognition of such a right would be a permanent cause of conflict. . . . "That a just and lasting settlement could be achieved by such a method cannot be believed." Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 98, p. 14. State Release 1937, No. 425, p. 381; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 744 f. Cf. Peace, p. 391.)

November 21. Chancellor Hitler demanded living space in colonies. (". . . for our people's territory is too small." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 232.)

November 24. Nine Power Conference noted its failure to mediate and adjourned. ("In order to allow time for participating govern¬ments to exchange views and further explore all peaceful methods by which a just settlement of the dispute may be attained con¬sistently with the principles of the Nine Power Treaty and in conformity with the objectives of that treaty the Conference deems it advisable temporarily to suspend its sittings." Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 98, p. 15; State Release 1937, No. 426, p. 400 f.; Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 749. Cf. Peace, p. 394.)

November 26. Dr. Walther Funk replaced Hjalmar Schacht as Minister of Economic Affairs. (Marked end of liberal influence in financial policy and intensification of autarchy. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 84. )

November 27. Autonomous government set up for Northern Honan at Changteh. (Under Japanese inspiration because of the Chinese retreat from Shanghai and the imminent fall of Nanking. Ibid., p. 250.) Dr. Wilhelm Frick, German Minister of the Interior, poke on the unification of all German peoples in the Greater Germany but rejected the idea of Germanizing foreigners. (". . . what we can never tolerate is the oppression and persecution of German people who live under foreign rule, simply on account of their conscious Germanism. . . . We are interested in the destiny of our German comrades beyond the frontiers and we will never disinterest ourselves in the fate of those German people who live abroad. . . . Race and nationality, blood and soil were the principles of National Socialist thought, and we should be acting in contradiction to them if anywhere we attempted to assimilate a foreign nationality by force. That desire we expressly reject." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 184 f.) Japan rejected idea of relinquishing South Sea island mandate ("Maintenance of Japan's Mandate over South Sea islands which formerly belonged to Germany is the established policy of this empire. . . ." Ibid., p. 256.)

November 28. Premier Konoye again rejected third party participation in Sino Japanese peace negotiations when peace terms were formulated. (". . . her aim was a fundamental readjustment of Sino Japanese relations." Ibid., p. 754.)

138 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II November 29. Italy recognized Manchukuo. (Result of joining Anti¬-Comintern Pact. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 303.)

November 30. Foreign Minister Mynheer J. A. N. Patijn again rejected a neutrality pact with Germany. (". . . We are not signatories of the Treaty of Locarno; we are not bound unilaterally to France and Great Britain; there is, therefore, no reason why we should seek to bind ourselves in any manner to Germany." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 189. Cf. Feb. 13, supra.) Britain and France took no position on the colonial question. (". . . this question was not one that could be considered in isolation and, moreover, would involve a number of other coun¬tries. It was agreed that the subject would require much more extended study. . . ." Ibid., p. 248. Cf. Feb. 17, March 13, April 6, Aug. 12, 1936, Feb. 17, March 31, Oct. 12, supra. Dec. 2, infra.)

December 1. Japan recognized the Nationalist Government of Spain. (Result of adherence to Anti Comintern pact and General Franco's recognition of Manchukuo. Survey 1937, Vol. II, p. 373 n.)

December 2. General Smuts said the claim of the Union of South Africa to the mandate of South West Africa, was based on formal agreement with Germany. ("There is a formal agreement whereby Germany acknowledges that the future of South West Africa is with the Union, and whereby Germany undertakes to advise her subjects in South West Africa to become Union subjects. They did in fact become Union subjects." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 250. Cf. March 31, Oct. 12, Supra.

December 3. German Ambassador to China offered to be Japanese peace intermediary. (German economic interests were threat¬ened. Survey 1937, Vol., I, pp. 242, 613.)

December 10. Nicaragua and Honduras signed agreement stopping war preparations and providing for peaceful settlement of their dispute. (". . . animated by a strong sentiment for concord and peace and the same worthy desire that the motives which have caused the present tension in the relations between the two sister countries be removed and that the cordial relations which have always existed and should continue to exist between the Governments and people of both countries be reestablished, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1937, No. 99, p. 10; State Release 1937, No. 429, p. 453.) .

December 11. Italy resigned from the League of Nations. ("We had not forgotten, and shall not forget, the opprobrious attempt at economic strangulation of the Italian people perpetrated at Geneva . . . In these circumstances our presence at the door of Geneva could not be tolerated any longer: it wounded our doctrine, our style, and our martial temperament." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 290.)


December 12. Japanese attacked British and American warships on Yangtze. ("Owing to poor visibility . . . the aircraft, although they descended to fairly low altitudes, were unable to discern any mark to show that any one of them was an American ship or man of war." State Release 1937, No. 429, p 450; cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, p. 758. Also Ibid., p. 770. Cf. Peace, p. 397.) The American report is as follows:

"2. That the Japanese aviators should have been familiar with the characteristics and distinguishing markings of the Panay as this ship was present at Nanking during the Japanese aerial attacks on this city.
"3. That, while the first bombers might not have been able on account of their altitude to identify the U. S. S. Panay, there was no excuse for attacking without properly identifying the target, especially as it vas will known that neutral vessels were present in the Yangtze River.
"4. That it was utterly inconceivable that the six light bomb¬ing plans coming within six hundred feet of the ships and attack¬ing for over a period of twenty minutes could not be aware of the identity of the ships they were attacking. "5. That the Japanese are solely and wholly responsible or all the losses which have occurred as the result of this attack." (Opinion of the U. S. Navy Court of Inquiry, Japan, Vol. I, pp. 546 547. For correspondence on the sinking of the U. S. S. Panay, see Ibid., pp. 517 563.)

Autonomous government for Shanshi established at Taiyuan. (Under Japanese inspiration. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 2 0; cf. Nov. 27, supra.) Germany announced she would never return to the League. ("At no period of its existence has it proved competent to make a useful contribution to the treatment of actual problems of world politics. On the contrary it has exercised only a harmful, even dangerous, influence on the whole political development of the post war period. Under the protection of alleged ideals it became more and more the instrument of particular wire pullers of the Versailles order. Instead of guiding international politics along the road of fruitful development through a reasonable balance of the natural forces and needs of the nations, Geneva has prin¬cipally occupied itself with the elaboration and application of methods for working against such a development.

"The complete failure of the League is today a fact which requires no further proof and no further discussion. The hopes which, above all, many small nations. placed in the League have given way to the realization that the Geneva policy of collective security has in fact led to a collective insecurity . . . the political system of Genera is not only a failure but pernicious." Doc. Int. Affairs 1937, pp. 185 f.) Provisional government of the Chinese Republic set up at Peiping. (Japanese found Anfu and Chili supporters who wished to restore a democratic state and free China from party dictatorship and communism. Survey 1937, Vol. I, p. 251 f.)


December 14. Haiti invoked the Gondra Pact of 1923 and a conciliation convention of 1929. (". . . with a view to putting into execu¬tion the procedures established by these two inter American diplomatic instruments in order to assure in the special case which interests the Republic of Haiti the triumph of peace and of justice." State Release 1937, No. 429, p. 477.)

December 15. Turkey protested French attempts to influence the election and the procedure of enacting electoral regulations in Sanjak. (Without consulting Turkey. Survey 1937, Vol., 1, p. 625.)
Italy withdrew from, the International Labour Office. (Wished to end all League connections. Ibid., p. 36.)

December 17. Dominican Republic accepted conciliation with Haiti. (". . . with the same desire it has always cherished of giving the Government and people of Haiti the most complete satis¬faction with regard to any legitimate claim that they may present on the ground of the regrettable and regretted incidents that occurred in Dominican territory early in October." State Release 1937, No. 430, p. 494. Cf. Dec. 14, supra.)

December 21. Foreign Secretary Eden said the League could not impose sanctions in the Sino Japanese dispute. (". . . nobody could contemplate any action of that kind in the Far East unless they are convinced that they have overwhelming force to back their policy. . . . It must be perfectly clear to every one that that overwhelming force does not exist. Every nation at Geneva from the beginning of this dispute knows perfectly well that the very thought of action of any kind in the Far East must depend on the cooperation of other nations besides those who are actually Members of the League at this time. . . ." British policy must be ". . . to be patient yet to be firm, to be conciliatory without being defeatist, and, above all, to continue to rearm . . . because, paradoxical as it may sound, only in that way shall we get an arms agreement." Britain had no intention of try¬ing to reach a settlement with Germany in the colonial field on the basis of a deal with other powers. ("I have seen it suggested in certain quarters. . . . Such a policy could never be accepted for one instant by this House. . . ." Commons, Vol. 330, cols. 1883, 1887, 1880 81.)

[ Continue to 1938 ]