EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II - (1933-34)


1933

January 2. Colombia presented memo to the League Council on the Peruvian occupation of Leticia. (Danger of clash between armed forces had become acute. Ibid., pp. 440, 444.)

January 5. Japanese Ambassador Katsuji Debuchi told the United States Japan had no territorial ambition south of the great wall, but Manchukuo was a closed question. (". . . no Japanese Cabinet which advocated a compromise of the 'Manchukuo' question could survive in Japan . . ." Peace, pp. 175 f.)

January 6. Secretary of State Stimson asked President Hoover to request legislation from Congress permitting the President to limit or forbid shipment of arms and munitions of war to any foreign state when such shipment would promote or encourage use of force in a conflict or dispute between nations. ("There are times when the hands of the executive in negotiations for the orderly settlement of international differences would be greatly strengthened if he were in a position, in cooperation with other producing nations, to control the shipment of arms. The United States should never, in justice to its own convictions and its own dignity, be placed in such a position that it could not join in preventing the, supply of arms or munitions for the furtherance of an international conflict while exercising its influence and prestige to prevent or bring to an end such a conflict. . . . The day is gone when the spread of a conflagration is easily confined to any continent or hemisphere. The taking by the United States of this additional step in its domestic policy will tend to give encouragement and momentum to the struggle for world peace and against the use of force from which arise some of the most critical problems of this unsettled period in international relationships." State Release 1933, No. 172, p. 22.)

January 10. President Hoover asked ratification of the international convention for the suppression of international trade in arms and ammunition and implements of war or legislation permitting the President to limit or forbid such shipment. (Cf. Jan. 6, supra., Ibid., p. 19.)

January 10-11; France and the Little Entente protested the Italian arms shipment to Austria. (As breach of the St. Germain treaty. Survey 1933, p. 575.)

January 17. The United States Senate passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Philippine independence bill over the President's veto (Public, No. 311, 72d Cong., 2d sess.), 47 Stat. Pt. I, 761-770.

23 24 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

January 24. League Council referred Leticia dispute to the committee of three appointed for the Chaco dispute. (To follow the dispute and take steps necessary to avert an armed collision. Ibid., p. 447.)

January 25. Secretary of State Stimson sent a note to Peru calling its attention to its obligations under the Pact of Paris. (At the request of Colombia. Ibid., pp. 444 f.; State Release, 1933, No. 174, pp. 66-70.)

January 27. Secretary of State Stimson sent text of note to Peru to the League of Nations. (To indicate the United States would welcome League assistance in ending the Leticia dispute, to remove a principal difficulty of the League in handling Latin American affairs, to obviate the danger of setting one mediating agency against another. Survey 19331 pp. 445 f.)

January 28. General von Schleicher resigned the German Chancellorship. (Because of Nazi-National coalition; Ibid., p. 143.)

January 30. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor. (Appointed by President von Hindenburg. Ibid., p. 143.)

February 2. Provisional agreement accepted in the Anglo-Persian oil dispute. (Benes mediated. Ibid., p. 597. Cf. Dec. 14, 1932, supra.) Argentina and Chile prepared conciliation formula for the Chaco dispute. (To avoid working at cross purposes. Ibid., pp. 115 f.)

February 14. Colombian forces invested Tarapacá, and Colombia broke off diplomatic relations. (Because they thought the mediation offer had expired, Ibid., pp. 447 f.)

February 15. Danzig police replaced harbor-board police at Westerplatte. (Danzig Senate would no longer carry out the provisions of the harbor police agreement. Ibid., p. 583.)

February 16. Little Entente [Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Yugoslavia] established a permanent council of foreign ministers as executive organ. ("Desirous of maintaining and of organizing the peace, having the firm intention of intensifying the economic relations with all states without distinction and with the states of central Europe in particular, eager to see the peace safeguarded in every circumstance, of assuring the evolution towards a definitive stabilization of conditions in central Europe and to have the common interests of their three countries respected . . ." [Unofficial Translation] Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 415.)

February 17. Colombia appealed to the League. (Under Art. 15, Survey 1933, p. 448.)

February 21. Austria promised to return the Italian arms. (Italy promised to take them back. Ibid., p. 575; cf. Jan, 10-11; supra.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 25

February 24. League Assembly unanimously declared Japan aggressor in Manchuria and recommended nonrecognition of Manchukuo. (By adopting report of Committee of Nineteen, Fleming, pp. 450 f.; Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p.390; State Release 1933, No. 179, pp. 149 f. Cf. Peace pp. 176 f.) Japan withdrew from .the Assembly. ("Unfortunately, the Assembly, through the refusal of its members to face facts, and their uncritical acceptance of the report of the commission of inquiry, has only indulged in academic and inadequate principles. The Assembly stands, if it may so be said, for mere formulae . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 394.) Mendoza formula of Argentina and Chile for settlement of Chaco dispute was submitted to Bolivia and Paraguay. (Joint mediation undertaken at suggestion of American neutral commission. Cf. Dec. 31, 1932, Feb. 2, supra. Survey 1933, p. 416.)

February 25. Committee of three proposed a League commission for Leticia dispute. (To take charge of Leticia corridor and maintain order. Ibid., pp. 448 f. Cf. Sept. 1, 1932.)

February 27. Secretary of State Stimson urged League proposal on Leticia disputants. ("I find the proposal suggested by the League of Nations a most straight-forward, helpful one, which, if accepted by both parties, should make possible a peaceful solution of the present controversy honorable to both governments;" State Release 1933 No. 179, p. 159.) Reichstag building in Berlin burned; (Cause unknown; Nazis attributed it to Communists. Survey 1933, p. 145.)

February 28. President von Hindenburg signed emergency decree. (To suspend articles in Weimar constitution guaranteeing personal liberty, freedom of expression of opinion, freedom of the press, freedom from domiciliary visits, right to hold meetings and form associations, and the privacy, of postal, telegraph, and telephone service. Ibid., p. 145.) All Communist deputies in the Reichstag and Landtag and all Communist civil servants in the Prussian state were arrested. (Under emergency decree. Ibid., p. 146.) .

March 4. President Roosevelt in his inaugural address said: "In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor–the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others–the neighbor who respects his obligations and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a world of neighbors." ("We now realize, as we have never realized before our interdependence on each other. That we cannot merely take, but we must give as well." Ibid., p. 331.)

March 5-9. Bank holiday in the United States by order of the President. (To check American banking crisis. Ibid., pp. 16-22.)

March 5-16. The coordination of the smaller political subdivisions of the Reich was completed by the appointment of a Nazi Gauleiter for each. (Under the emergency decree of Feb. 28. Ibid., p. 146.)

26 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

March 5. National Socialists and Nationalists won majority in German elections. (Held to get approval for an enabling bill. Gain due to loss of a million votes by Communists. Ibid:, p. 144.)

March 6. Poles sent 112 extra soldiers to Westerplatte munitions depot. (As reaction to change of regime in the Reich. Ibid., p. 187.) Committee of three asked the League Council to consider the Chaco dispute. (Under Art. 11, to get a legal basis to apply an arms embargo to both. Ibid., p.419.)

March 7. Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss assumed semidictatorship in Austria. (President Wilhelm Miklas consented to government by emergency decrees following a parliamentary crisis which resulted in suspension of parliamentary government. Ibid., 1934, p. 435.)

March. 8. League Council noted attempt at solution of Leticia dispute had failed and ordered committee of three to prepare a report. (Under para. 4 of Art. 15 of the Covenant, Ibid., p. 449. Cf. Mar. 6, supra.)

March 9. Nazis temporarily occupied barracks in demilitarized zone at Kehl. (To force coordination. Ibid., pp. 588, 146. See Mar. 5-16, supra.)

March 11. The United States accepted League invitation to cooperate in work of the advisory committee on the Sino-Japanese dispute. (". . . believing that participation by a representative of this government in the deliberations of the committee would be helpful . . ." State Release 1933, No, 181, p. 177.)

. March 14. Poland agreed to withdraw extra men from Westerplatte. (Danzig Senate promised adequate measures to safeguard Polish rights. Survey 1933, p. 187.)

March 17. League report recommended the complete evacuation by Peruvian forces of Leticia area and withdrawal of all support from Peruvians who had occupied it. (Her nationals supported by military authorities at Loreto had occupied Colombian territory as agreed by mutual treaty. Ibid. pp. 450 f.; cf. Aug. 31, 1932, supra.)

March 18. League Council appointed an advisory committee on Leticia. (". . . to watch the situation, assist the Council in the performance of its duties under Art. 4, para. 4, and help the members of the League, for the same purpose, to concert their action and their attitude among themselves and with non-member states." Ibid., p.451.) The United States accepted the invitation to cooperate with the advisory committee. (President Roosevelt was said to be glad to have the assistance of the League in matters of concern in the American hemisphere. Ibid., p. 451; cf. State Release 1933, No. 182, p. 194.) Bavarian Minister of Justice; Dr, Hans Frank; in broadcast from Munich, warned Austria that German Nazis might feel

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 27

obliged to assume responsibility for security and freedom of Austrian Nazis. (Austria under war emergency decrees had checked hostile demonstrations of Austrian Socialists and Nazis by prohibiting demonstrations and political assemblies and restricting the freedom of the press. Survey 1934, pp. 435-436.)

March 22. League advisory committee on Leticia sought arms embargo against Peru. Ibid. 1933, pp. 451 f.

March 23. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and American neutral commission proposed 60-day truce for Chaco. (To provide time for arbitration without continual aggravation. Ibid., p. 417.) Hitler forecast "pacific" policy in first speech to new Reichstag. ("It is the sincere wish of the National Government to be able to refrain from an increase in the German Army and in our weapons in so far as the rest of the world is at length inclined to realize its duty of radical disarmament. For Germany wants nothing else but an equal right to life and equal freedom. . . . The misery of the world will only be alleviated when peoples once more have trust in one another. . . . With reference to Austria, the Reich government is fully conscious of the unity of the destiny of all the German peoples. . . . The fate of Germans outside the frontiers of the Reich, who have the special task of struggling for the protection of their language, culture, manners, and religion, will always move us to intercede with every means at our command for the rights guaranteed to German minorities. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 404 f.)

March 24. Reichstag passed enabling act conferring dictatorial authority on government for four-year period. (Cf. March 5, supra. Survey 1933, p. 147.)

March 26. Fighting renewed in Leticia. (Ibid., p. 452.)

March 27. Japan gave formal notice for withdrawal from League membership. ("The conclusion must be that, in seeking a solution of the [Manchurian] question, the majority of the League have attached greater importance to upholding inapplicable formulae than to the real task of assuring peace, and higher value to the vindication of academic theses than to the eradication of the sources of future conflict. For these reasons, and because of the profound differences of opinion existing between Japan and the majority of the League in their interpretation of the Covenant and of other treaties, the Japanese Government have been led to realize the existence of an irreconcilable divergence of views, dividing Japan and the League on policies of peace, and especially as regards the fundamental principles to be followed in the establishment of a durable peace in the Far East. The Japanese Government, believing that in these circumstances, there remains no room for further cooperation, hereby give notice. . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 397 f.)

March 31, Austria disbanded Socialist military organization. (Alleged plan to resist the government. Survey 1934) p. 456.)

28 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

April 1. Chancellor Hitler ordered nation-wide one-day boycott of Jews: (Persecution of the Jews was one of the original points of his personal program for the regeneration of the German race and the Reich. Ibid. 19331 pp, 156 f.)

April 5. Secretary of State Hull wrote Congressional Committees asking arms embargo law. (". . . this Government should no longer be left in the position of being unable to join the other governments of the world in preventing the supply of arms and munitions for use in an international conflict when it is exercising its diplomacy and the whole weight of our national influence and prestige to prevent or put an end to that conflict. . . ." Peace, p. 178. Cf. Jan. 6, supra.)

April 7. Aryan law passed in Germany. (To disqualify for public employment German citizens who had a single Jewish grandparent. Survey 1933, p. 157.)

April 8. Unification bill replaced Reich kommissars with Statthalters in Germany. (To clinch and regularize the coordination of the political subdivisions. Ibid., p. 147.)

April 12. President Roosevelt outlined further his good neighbor policy. (Pan American Day address: "Never have the need and benefit of neighborly cooperation every form of human activity been so evident as they are today." State Release 1933, No. 185, p. 244.) Danish Rigsdag passed bill prohibiting members of political organizations from wearing uniforms. (Because of local Nazi agitation in Northern Schleswig. Survey 1933, p, 173.)

April 9. British embargoed Russian goods. (Because of sentence of British Metropolitan-Vickers employees for sabotage. Ibid., 1934, p. 370.) The United States abandoned the gold standard. (Politically inevitable, to be off before beginning of conversations about World Economic conference with Ramsay MacDonald. Ibid. 1933, p. 28.)

April 22. Russia embargoed British imports. (Retorsion. See April 19, supra.)

May 2. Nazis took over free trade unions. (Pillars of the Social-Democratic party. Ibid., p. 148.) Russia offered to sell Japan the Chinese Eastern Railroad. (To solve Russo-Japanese friction in Manchuria. Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 437 f.)

May 5. Germany and Russia exchanged ratifications prolonging German-Russian neutrality treaty. (Common will to peace; reaction to moral alienation following advent of Nazi regime. Survey 1933, p. 180.)

May 10. Property of German trade unions, the Social-Democratic private army, and the Social-Democratic party was confiscated by the Reich. (Part of coordination plan. Ibid., p. 148.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 29

Paraguay declared state of war existed with Bolivia over the Chaco. (Senate and Deputies had authorized war in March, but action had been postponed at request of mediating group; when mediation ended, Paraguay hoped states bordering Bolivia would halt. transit of munitions to the latter. Ibid., p. 417.)

May 12; Vice Chancellor von Papen made speech glorifying war. ("The maintenance of eternal life demanded the sacrifice of the individual." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 406.) Danzig Nazis seized local trade union headquarters. (As step toward Nazi capture of Danzig. Survey 1933, p. 187.)

May 14. Rival Nazi and Heimwehr demonstrations in Vienna. (250th anniversary of successful defense of Vienna against the Turks.) Bavarian Nazi Minister of Justice Dr. Hans Frank and Dr. Hans Kerrl, German Minister of Justice, were warned to avoid political topics; but Dr. Frank threatened reprisals for such affront. (Ibid. 1934, p. 439.)

May 16. President Roosevelt cabled the heads of states to support the British disarmament proposals. ("A profound hope of the people of my country impels me . . . to address you. . . . This hope is that peace may be assured through practical measures of disarmament and that all of us may carry to victory our common struggle against economic chaos. . . ." State Release 1933, No. 190, p. 351. Cf. Peace, pp. 180-181.)

May 17. Chancellor Hitler demanded revision of the Treaty of Versailles and equality of rights. ("For all the problems which are causing such unrest today lie in the deficiencies of the treaty of peace which did not succeed in solving in a clear and reasonable way the questions of the most decisive importance for the future. Neither national nor economic problems and demands of nations were settled by this treaty in such a way as to stand the criticism of reason in the future. . . . As it was, through ignorance, passion, and hatred, decisions were taken which, in their injustice and lack of logic, bore the seeds of fresh conflicts. . . . The treaty of Versailles is to blame for having inaugurated a period in which financial calculations appear to destroy economic reason. . . . The demand for equality of rights expressed, in actual facts is a demand of morality, right, and reason; it is a demand which is recognized in the peace treaty itself, and the fulfillment of which is indissolubly bound up with the demand for German disarmament as the prelude to world disarmament. . . . Germany, in demanding at present actual equality of rights as regards disarmament of other nations, has a moral right to do so since she has herself carried out the provisions of the treaties. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 196-202.)

May 20. League committee of three recommended armistice and arbitration to be arranged by a League committee in the Chaco dispute. Paraguay accepted, but Bolivia withheld approval. (Survey 1933, p. 421.)

30 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

May 22. The United States at disarmament conference promised con¬sultation in threat to peace and no interference with collective, action if it concurred in decision. ("The disarmament confer¬ence has reached the moment for definite decisions. . . . The immediate result of a failure here would be a setback to economic recovery, which depends upon such mutual confidence between nations as will permit a real collaboration in the task of restoring international trade and the freer movement of goods." State Release 1933, No. 191, pp. 387 ff. Cf. Peace, pp. 186 ff.)

May 24. League of Nations prepared draft treaty defining aggression as follows: "The aggressor in an international conflict shall, subject to the agreements in force between the parties to the dispute, be considered to be that State which is the first to commit any of the following actions: "(1) declaration of war upon another state; "(2) invasion by its armed forces, with or without a declaration of war, of the territory of another state; "(3) attack by its land, naval, or air forces, with or without a declaration of war, on the. territory, vessels, or aircraft of another state; "(4) naval blockade of the coasts or ports of another state; "(5) provision of support to armed bands formed in its terri¬tory which have invaded the territory of another state, or refusal, notwithstanding the request of the invaded state; to take in its own territory all the measures in its power to deprive those bands of all assistance or protection." (Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp: 221 f. As part of disarmament conference. Survey 1933, p. 182.) Further statement of the possible future cooperation of the United States with the members of the League of Nations under the proposed disarmament convention. ("Recognizing that any breach or threat of breach of the pact of Paris [the Briand Kellogg Pact] is a matter of concern to all the signatories thereto. . . with a view to the maintenance of peace. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 217.)

May 25. Colombia and Peru accepted the League advisory committee. recommendations. (". . . looking toward a solution of the difficulties arising out of the Leticia incident." State Release 1933, No. 191, p. 405.)

May 28. Nazis gained majority in Danzig Volkstag elections. (Com¬pleting capture of Danzig. Survey 1933, p. 187; cf. May 12, supra.) .

May 31. Tangku truce between Sino Japanese troops. (Chinese re¬sistance collapsed in face of fresh Japanese threats. Ibid., p. 481. )

June 1. Germany imposed a special visa fee on all Germans who wished to visit Austria. (Retorsion for threat to expel Bavarian Minis¬ter Dr. Frank. Ibid., 1934, p. 439; cf. May 14, supra.)

June 4. United States R. F. C. loan to China. (For purchase of American cotton and wheat. Ibid. 1933, pp. 469, 580.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR, II 31

June 5. Gold clause in public and private obligations repealed in the United States. ("Whereas the holding of or dealing in gold affects the public interest, and is therefore subject to proper regulation and restriction, and whereas the existing emergency has disclosed that provisions of obligations, which. purport to give the obligee a right to require payment ins gold or a particular kind of coin or currency of the United States, or in an amount in money of the United States measure, thereby obstruct the power of Congress to regulate the value of the money of the United States and are inconsistent with the declared policy of the Congress to maintain at all times the equal power of every dollar, coined or issued by the United States, in the markets and in the payment of debts. . . ." 48 Stat., Pt. I, 112 113.)

June 7. Four Power Pact initialed in Rome by Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. ("Conscious of the special responsibilities, incumbent on them as possessing permanent representation on the Council of the League of Nations, where the League itself and its members are concerned, and of the responsibilities resulting from their common signature of the Locarno agreements; . "Convinced that the state of disquiet which obtains throughout the world can only be dissipated by reinforcing their solidarity in such a way as to strengthen confidence in peace in Europe; "Faithful to the obligations which they have assumed in virtue of the Covenant of the League of Nations; the Locarno treaties, and the Briand Kellogg Pact, and taking into account the Declara¬tion of the renunciation of force, the principle of which was pro¬claimed in the declaration signed at Geneva on the 11th of December, 1932, by their delegates at the disarmament conference and adopted on the 2nd of March, 1933, by the political commis¬sion of that conference; "Anxious to give full effect to all the provisions of the Covenant of the League of Nations, while conforming to the methods and procedure laid down therein, from which they have no intention of departing; "Mindful of the rights of every state, which cannot be affected without the consent of the interested party; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 45, p. 42; No. 46, p. 3.)

June 11. As result of campaign of terrorism of Austrian Nazis, Austrian police arrested Austrian and German Nazis, some of whom were deported to Germany. (Survey 1933, p. 440.)

June 12. World Economic Conference opened in London. ("The nations of the world have met here to take common counsel relative to the common objective of peace and prosperity. In this modern age the economic interests of all countries are reciprocal." State Release 1933, No. 194, p. 444.)

June 15. Czechoslovakia, Britain, Italy, Latvia, and Rumania made token payments on war debts; Finland paid in full; others defaulted. (Ibid., Nos. 194, 195; pp. 452 463, 478 485.)

32 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

June 19. Austria outlawed the German National Socialist party in Austria. ("In accordance with the law of July 24, 1917, in order to guard against the economic dangers associated with a disturbance of public peace, order, and security . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 386. Cf. June 11, supra.)

June 22. The United States rejected temporary monetary stabiliza¬tion. (". . . measures of temporary stabilization now would be untimely . . . because the American Government feels that its efforts to rise prices are the most important contribution it can make and that anything that would interfere with those efforts and possibly cause a violent price recession would harm the conference more than the lack of an immediate agreement for temporary, stabilization." State Release 1933, No. 195, p. 470.)

June 26. German Government outlawed the Social Democratic party. (Part of coordination plan to wipe out legalized opposition. Survey 1933, p. 148.) League commission reached Leticia to arrange armistice. (Cf. May 25, supra; Ibid., p. 454.)

June 26. Bolivia accepted League commission for Chaco. (Cf. May 20, supra; Ibid, p. 422.) Consul General George S. Messersmith reported from Berlin menace inherent in Nazi regime. (". . . it has no spokesman who can really be depended upon, and those who hold the highest positions are capable of actions which really outlaw them from ordinary intercourse. "I think we must recognize that while the Germany of to day wants peace, it is by no means a peaceful country or one looking forward to a long period of peace. The present German Govern¬ment and its adherents desire peace ardently for the present because they need peace to carry through the changes in Germany which they want to bring about. What they want to do, however, definitely is to make Germane the most capable instrument of war that there has ever existed. The Minister of Education, speaking yesterday, said that a Spartan spirit must be developed among the German youth. Wherever one goes in Germany one sees people drilling, from children of five and six on, up to those well into middle age. A psychology is being developed that the whole world is against Germany and that it lies defenseless before the world." Peace, pp. 191 f.)

June 27. American committee of neutrals dropped Chaco mediation. ("In view of the present negotiations in other places between Bolivia and Paraguay for a settlement of the Chaco question there was nothing further for the neutral commission to do in the matter and that it could best contribute to the establishment of peace . . . by withdrawing from the situation. Experience has shown that if there is more than one center of negotiation, confusion and lack of agreement are the inevitable results. . ." State Release 1933, No. 196, pp: 1 f. Cf. July 21, 1932.) German Nationalist Party voluntarily dissolved. (Fear of subjugation by Nazis. Survey 1933, p. 148.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 33

July 1. British and Russian embargoes lifted. (Amicable settlement, British released. Ibid., 1934, p. 370. Cf. Apr. 19 and Apr. 22, supra.)

July 3. Pact defining aggression as in League draft [May 24, supra.] signed by Afghanistan, Esthonia, Latvia, Persia, Poland, Ru¬mania, Turkey, and Russia. ("Being desirous of strengthening the peace existing between their countries; "In view of the fact that the Briand Kellogg pact to which they are signatories forbids all aggression; "Believing that it is necessary, in the interest of the general security to define aggression as precisely as possible in order to prevent any pretext for its justification; "Being aware that all states have an equal right to independ¬ence, to security, to the defense of their territories, and to the free development of their institutions; "Animated by the desire, in the interest of general peace, to assure to all peoples the inviolability of the territory of their countries; "Deeming it expedient, in the interests of general peace to put into effect as between their countries, precise rules defining aggression, pending the time when such rules shall become universal; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 47, pp. 4 f, 39.)

July 23. Finland adhered to pact defining aggression. (Cf. July 5, supra; to complete chain of agreements. Survey 1933, p. 183.)

July 26. Bolivia and Paraguay asked for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru on League commission of inquiry. (Bolivia preferred to have the dispute handled by American states. Ibid., pp. 421 f, 578.)

July 27. Adjournment of world economic conference and declaration of empire monetary and economic policy by Australia, Canada, Britain, India, New Zealand, and South Africa. (To reiterate faith in Ottawa Agreements [July 21, 1932 supra.]; to persist in the policy of furthering rise in wholesale prices until equilibrium had been reestablished, then to seek stabilization there; to restore a satisfactory international gold standard. Ibid., pp. 75 f.)

August 3. League Council decided to ask Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru to join commission of inquiry. (Because Bolivia and Paraguay had acted together. Ibid., p. 422. Cf. July 26, supra. )

August 5. Polish Danzig agreement regulated position of Polish nationals and use of port. ("Being desirous of settling by mutual consent certain questions in, dispute between the two governments . . ." L. N. 0. J., Oct. 1933, No. 10, Pt. I, p. 1156.)

August 7. Agreement concluded between the United States and Haiti. (Concerning the Haitianization of the Garde, withdrawal of military forces from Haiti, and financial arrangement. Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 47, pp. 7f.; State Release 1933, No. 203, pp. 103 108.)

34 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

August 9. State of war declared in Cuba. (Unrest following general strike. Survey 1933, p. 379.)

August 11. Cuban army revolt overthrew President Machado. Ibid., p. 380.

August 25. International wheat agreement signed. (". . . having accepted the invitation . . . to consider the measures which might be taken in concert to adjust the supply of wheat to effective world demand and eliminate the abnormal surpluses which have been depressing the wheat market and to bring about a rise and stabilization of prices at a level remunerative to the farmers and fair to the consumers of breadstuffs . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 48, p. 18.) Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru presented new conciliation formula to Bolivia and Paraguay. (To find a solution to the hitherto insuperable difficulties. Survey 1933, pp. 422 f. Cf. Aug. 3, supra.)

September 2. Pact of friendship, nonaggression, and neutrality be¬tween Italy and Russia signed. (". . animated by a desire to contribute by all means possible to the maintenance of general peace, noting the continuance of the friendly relations which unite their two countries, desiring to continue the policy of absolute non intervention in the internal affairs of their respec¬tive countries, . . " Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 233.)

September 3. Chancellor Hitler renounced war except against Bol¬shevism. (". . . because the German people know that no war could take place which would gain for their country more honor than was won in the last war . . . Germany is not in need of rehabilitation on the battle field, for there she has never lost her prestige. . . . By waging war on Bolshevism, Germany . . . is fulfilling a European mission. . . ." Ibid., pp. 406 f.)

September 5. Disturbances broke out in Habana, Santiago and other centers of Cuba, and, as "a wise precaution," the President of the United States ordered warships to Cuban ports. (Release, Sept. 9, p. 144.).

September 10. Ramon Grau San Martin, University of Havana professor, became President of Cuba. (Executive commission of provisional government decided to return to the presidential form of government. Ibid., p. 384.) Theodore Habicht demanded restoration of Austrian National¬-Socialist party, whose aim was the union of Austria with the Reich. ("These demands correspond to the actual situation in Austria and the wishes of the people no less than to the principles of democracy. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 392. Cf. July. 5, supra.)

September 18. Another Danzig Polish agreement on treatment of nationals and port use. (Cf. Aug 5, supra; Survey 1933, p. 584.)

September 21. Chancellor Dollfuss reconstructed Austrian cabinet. (Because of enmity of Heimwehr and Landbund, his nominal supporters. Ibid., p. 577; Ibid. 1934, pp. 458 f.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 35

September 25. Russia protested alleged plot for Manchukuoan seizure of Chinese Eastern Railway. (Carefully worked out plan adopted in Harbin at a series of meetings of the Japanese military mission and the responsible Japanese administrators of Manchuria. Ibid., 1933, p. 526. Cf. May 2, supra.)

September 29. The Dutch delegation at the Fourteenth Assembly of the League of Nations moved that the problem of German refugees should be dealt with by international collaboration. (The personae non gratae of the Hitler regime began to appear in other countries. Ibid., p. 156.)

October 1. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru notified League Council that negotiations with Bolivia and Paraguay had broken down. (Bolivia refused to accept formula of Aug. 25, supra; Ibid., p. 424.)

October 4. Czechoslovakian Government decided to dissolve the German National Socialist party and the Nationalist party in Czech territory and to prohibit all their activities and all their subsidiary organizations. (German Austrian anschluss would make life impossible for her and jeopardize her existence as an independent state. Ibid., p. 197.)

October 6. Germany submitted an aide memoire on disarmament again insisting on equality of rights. ("This need [of assuring her security] requires that Germany be either absolutely free as the other countries, or subject to the same qualitative restrictions." [Translation.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 281.)

October 10. Antiwar pact signed at Rio de Janeiro by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, and Uruguay. (". . . To the end of condemning wars of aggression and territorial acquisitions secured by means of armed conquest and of making them impos¬sible, of sanctioning their invalidity through the positive pro¬visions of this treaty, and in order to replace them with pacific solutions based upon lofty concepts of justice and, equity; "Being convinced that one of the most effective means of insuring the moral and material benefits the world derives from peace is through the organization of a permanent system of conciliation of international disputes, to be applied upon a viola¬tion of the hereinafter mentioned principles; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 49, p. 17.) President Roosevelt invited Russia to negotiate toward the establishment of normal diplomatic relations between the two countries. ("It is most regrettable that these great peoples, between whom a happy tradition of friendship existed for more than a century to their mutual advantage, should now be without a practical method of communicating directly with each other . . ." White House Press Releases, Oct. 10.)

October 11. League Assembly passed resolution on international assistance for German refugees (Cf. Sept. 29, supra. Survey 1933, p. 156).

36 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

October 14. Germany withdrew from the disarmament conference. ("In the light of the course which recent discussions of the powers concerned have taken in the matter of disarmament, it is now clear that the disarmament conference will not fulfill what is its sole object, namely, general disarmament. . . . This renders impossible the satisfaction of Germany's recognized claim to equality of rights, and the condition on which the German government agreed at the beginning of this year again to take part in the work of the conference thus no longer exists." Doc. Int. Affairs 1944, p. 285. Germany resolved to withdraw from the League of Nations. "Since it has been made clear to us from the declarations of the official representatives of certain. great powers that they were not prepared to consider real equality of rights for Germany at present, we have decided that it is impossible, in view of the indignity of her position, for Germany to continue to force her company upon other nations. . . ." Ibid., pp. 292 f.) Chancellor Hitler said there was no ground for territorial con¬flict with France once the Saar was settled. (". . . only a madman would consider the possibility of war between the two states, for which, from our point of view, there is no rational or moral ground." Ibid., p. 291.)

October 17. A treaty of nonaggression, conciliation, and arbitration signed between Rumania and Turkey. ("Equally devoted to the maintenance of general peace; "Convinced that it is the duty of Turkey and Rumania to cooperate to this end in a spirit of mutual confidence by preparing for the pacific settlement of disputes liable to arise between them; "Keeping in mind that both governments are signatories of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928, relative to the renunciation of war, and of the Conventions of July 3 and 4, 1933, determining aggression; "Desirous of strengthening in the common interest of the two countries the existing bonds of friendship, which constitute for them a guaranty for the future; . . ." Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 50, p. 18.)

October 25. Colombia and Peru began negotiations on Leticia under auspices of the Brazilian foreign minister (Cf. June 23, supra. Survey 1933, p. 582).

November 2. Secretary of State Hull told German Ambassador Hans Luther that a general war was probable in the next two to ten years. (". . . the outlook in Europe at this distance for disarmament or for peace did not appear very encouraging. . . ." Peace, p. 193.)

November 3. League Commission of inquiry began work on Chaco dispute.(Cf. June 26, July 26, supra. Survey 1933, p. 578).

November 12. National plebiscite approved Chancellor Hitler's foreign policy as to withdrawal from disarmament conference and League of Nations by more than 90 percent vote (Ibid., pp. 148 f. Cf. Oct. 14 supra).

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 37

November 16. The United States recognized the Government of Soviet Russia. (". . .that our nations henceforth may cooperate for their mutual benefit and for the preservation of the peace of the world." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 462.)

November 28. Consul General Messersmith reported Germany wanted peace "for the moment." (". . . The military spirit is constantly growing . . .to have a chance to get ready to use force if it is found finally essential. . . ." Peace, p. 194.)

December 1. The German National Socialist party was constituted a statutory corporation. (Because of the overwhelming mandate of Nov. 12. Survey 1933, p. 149.)

December 3 26. Seventh Pan American Conference at Montevideo (Ibid., p. 318).

December 15. Token payments on war debts made by Czechoslovakia, Britain, Italy, Latvia, and Rumania; Finland paid in full (State Release 1933, No. 220, pp. 347 357). Committee on the organization of peace of the Pan American Conference adopted a declaration offering the services of all governments represented at the Conference for the settlement of the Chaco dispute. (It put on record that the Conference was ready to cooperate with the League of Nations in the appli¬cation of the Covenant. Survey 1933, p. 425 n.)

December 18. German Government in memo to French reiterated stand on disarmament. ("The heavily armed states either have no intention of disarming or do not feel in a position to do so. Germany is entitled to obtain, in one way or another, equality of treatment as regards her own security." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 329.) Germany insisted on the innocuous character of the S. A. and S. S. as political organizations. ("Their sole mission is to organize the political masses of our people so as to make the return of the Communist peril impossible for evermore . . . whose aim is to immunize the country, intellectually and physically, against the risk of Communist disintegration. . . ." Ibid., p. 331.)

December 19. Chaco armistice until Jan. 6, 1934. (Proposed by Paraguay because of the impossibility of giving proper care to the large number of Bolivian prisoners as long as the fighting continued, and to consolidate advance before lengthening lines of communication. Survey 1933, p. 425 n.) The United States renounced the right of intervention in Latin America. ("Under the. Roosevelt administration the United States Government is as much opposed as any other government to interference with the freedom, the sovereignty, or other internal affairs or processes of the governments of other nations." State Release 1933; No. 221, p. 326. Cf. Peace, p. 202.)

December 22. Swiss Federal Council passed a supplementary vote of 82,000,000 Swiss francs for national defense. (Because of rumors of projected Nazi coup across Switzerland toward France. Survey 1933, p. 173.)

38 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

December 28. President Roosevelt extended the policy of renunciation of the right of armed intervention to all nations (". . . the time has come to supplement and to implement the declaration of President Wilson ['That the United States will never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest.'] . . ." State Release 1933, No. 222, p. 381.) and offered a definition of aggres¬sion. ("Back of the threat to world peace lies the fear and perhaps even the possibility that the other 10 percent of the people of the world may go along with a leadership which seeks territorial expansion at the expense of neighbors and which under various pleas in avoidance are unwilling to reduce armament or stop rearmament even if everybody else agrees to non aggression and to arms reduction." Ibid., p. 382. Cf. Peace, pp. 205 ff.)


1934

January 18. General Carlos Mendieta became President of Cuba. (The revolutionary junta on Jan. 15 had requested the resigna¬tion of President San Martin, and had named Carlos Hevia in his place. Provisional President Hevia, who assumed office on Jan. 16, resigned two days later in the face of public opposition. Survey 1933, p. 388.)

January 22. Japanese Foreign Minister Koki Hirota asserted Japan's responsibility for the maintenance of peace in East Asia. ("Japan, serving as the only corner stone for the edifice of the peace of Eastern Asia, bears the entire burden of responsibility." Ibid., 1934, p. 646. )

January 26. Ten year nonaggression pact between Poland and Ger¬many signed. ("The Polish and German Governments find that the moment has arrived for inaugurating a new era in Polish¬-German political relations by means of direct communication between the two countries. With this end in view they have decided to establish, by the present declaration, a basis for the future development of those relations. "It is the view of both Governments that the maintenance and the strengthening of permanent peace between their countries is the essential condition for general peace in Europe. In view of this they have decided to base their mutual relations on the principles contained in the Paris Pact of August 27, 1928, and they desire to define more accurately the application of those principles to Polish German relations." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 54, p. 40.)

January 30. Chancellor Hitler again demanded equality of rights and repeated Germany would accept not only the letter but the spirit of the Locarno pact once the Saar question was settled. (". . . there are no other territorial questions outstanding be¬tween France and Germany . . . no threat and no force will ever move the German people to abandon those rights which cannot be denied to a sovereign nation. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs. 1934, pp. 329 f.)

January 31. The United States devalued the dollar to 59.06 percent of its former value. (At the request of the President on Jan. 15: "Careful study leads me to believe that any revaluation at more than 60 percent of the present statutory value would not be in the public interest." State Release 1934, No. 225, p. 23.)

February 9. Greece, Rumania, Turkey, Yugoslavia signed the Balkan pact. ("Desirous of contributing to the strengthening of peace in the Balkans;

39 40 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

"Animated by a spirit of understanding and of conciliation which has presided at the negotiation of the Kellogg Briand Pact and at the decisions relative to it at the Assembly of the League of Nations; "Firmly determined to assure respect for contractual engage¬ments already existing and the maintenance of territorial order actually established, . . ." [Unofficial Translation]. Do . Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 408 f.)

February 12 15. The Dollfuss government crushed the Austrian Social Democrats in bloody revolution and outlawed their party and their trade unions, societies, and clubs. (The Socialists had been allegedly preparing for a general strike and for active resist¬ance, orders had been issued for a revolt on Feb. 13. Survey 1934, p. 462.)

February 15. French and British Governments asked the League Council to approve the Syro Palestine frontier agreement of March 7, 1923. (As delimiting the western section defined by the convention of Dec. 23, 1920. Ibid., p. 304.)

February 17. Britain, Italy, and France issued a declaration that Austrian independence and integrity had to be maintained. ("The Austrian Government has inquired of the Governments of France, Great Britain, and Italy as to their attitude with regard to the dossier which it has prepared with a view to establishing German interference in the internal affairs of Austria and communicated to them:" Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, pp. 394 f.) Esthonia and Latvia signed an agreement for mutual coopera¬tion at foreign conferences. (For the organization of an alliance; for coordination of policies on international questions of common interest and of legislation and diplomatic and consular work abroad. Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 56, p. 12.)

February 19. Theodore Habicht in broadcast to Austria forecast truce in subversive activities of Austrian Nazis. ("The Dollfuss gov¬ernment has been successful in the struggle against Austrian bol¬shevism. . . . As proof of the sincerity of its [Austrian Nazi party] pacific intentions . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 395. Cf. July 5, 1933, supra.)

February 21. Foreign Minister Hirota wrote Secretary of State Hull: ". . . the Japanese nation makes it its basic principle to collabo¬rate in peace and harmony with all nations and has no intention whatever to provoke and make trouble with any other Power." ("It is the sincere desire of Japan that a most peaceful and friendly relation will be firmly established between her and her great neighbor across the Pacific, the United States. . ." Peace, p. 209.)

February 22. League Commission proposed a peace and arbitration treaty to the Chaco disputants. (As a final effort to provide a solution. Survey 1933, p. 428.) Chancellor Dollfuss reiterated Austria's determination to retain her. independence. (". . . The freedom and independence of our

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 41

country is a problem not only for this small part of Europe but for central Europe, and indeed for Europe as a whole . . . if we thus assure to the people a permanent and peaceful co existence, thereby winning real independence for our country, I maintain that not only we ourselves and Europe but also the whole con¬ception of peace, will stand to benefit." Doc. Int. Affairs 1933, p. 394.)

March 1. Henry Pu yi crowned Emperor of Manchukuo as Kang Te. (Survey 1934, p. 703. Cf. Feb. 29, 1932.)

March 2. President Roosevelt asked for revision of Philippine independence legislation [Public, No. 311, 72d Cong., 2d sess. Cf. Jan. 17, 1933.] ("Our nation covets no territory; it desires to hold no people over whom it has gained sovereignty through war against their will. "In keeping with the principles of justice and in keeping with our traditions and aims, our government for many years has been committed by law to ultimate independence for the people of the Philippine Islands whenever they should establish a suitable government capable of maintaining that independence among the nations of the world. We have believed that the time for such independence is at hand." State Release 1934, No. 231, p. 108.)

March 12. League commission abandoned conciliation efforts in the Chaco affair. (The attempt to find a basis on which direct nego¬tiations could begin had broken down. Survey 1933, p. 430. )

March 17. Rome protocols signed by Italy, Austria, and Hungary. ("Animated by a desire to contribute to the maintenance of peace and to the economic recovery of Europe upon the basis of respect for the independence and for the rights of every state, "Persuaded that the collaboration of the three governments toward that end may bring into existence the requisite conditions for greater cooperation with other states, "Undertake, in order to achieve the aforesaid purposes; "To come to an understanding on all problems particularly affecting them and on problems of a general character, for the purpose of pursuing in the spirit of the existing Italo Austrian, Italo Hungarian, and Austro Hungarian treaties of friendship which are based upon the recognition of the existence of many common interests, a concordant policy directed toward promoting effective collaboration among the European states and particu¬larly among Italy, Austria, and Hungary." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 55, pp. 4, 23 27.)

March 22. War between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. (Negotiations over Asir and Najran broke down. Survey 1934, pp. 316 f.)

March 24. Philippine Independence Act passed. [Public, No. 12'Z; 73d Cong., 2d sess.] ("To provide for the complete independence of the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes." Cf. Mar. 2, supra. 48 Stat., Pt. I, 456 465.)

42 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

March 28. Germany refused to join Russia in a guarantee to the four Baltic countries. (Russia wanted an East European mutual security pact. Germany sought Lebensraum. Survey 1934, pp. 412 f.)

April 3. Germany made a token payment on the mixed claims and costs of the army of occupation to the United States. (The principal installment was postponed in accordance with the pro¬visions of the debt agreement. State Release 1934, No. 235, p. 179. )

April 4. Nonaggression treaties between Russia and Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania renewed until 1945. (Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 56, p. 10; No. 58, p. 6.)

April 7. Finland Russian nonaggression treaty renewed until 1945 (Ibid., No. 55, p. 2).

April 10. Japanese Foreign Office announced it was absolutely op¬posed to any foreign interference in China. (Prolong confusion. Survey 1934, p. 650.)

April 12. The United States Senate decided to investigate the manu¬facture of arms and munitions. (To consider the desirability of making their manufacture a government monopoly. Ibid. 1933, p. 433 n.)

April 13. Johnson Act became law. An act to prohibit financial transactions with any foreign government in default on its obliga¬tions to the United States. Public, No. 151; 73d Cong., 2d sess. (48 Stat., Pt. I, p: 574.)

April 17 18. Japan repeated her opposition to supply of airplanes, construction of airdromes, lending of military experts, and grant¬ing of loans for political purposes to China. ("Japan is called upon to exert the utmost effort in carrying out her mission and in fulfilling her special responsibilities in East Asia. . . ." Ibid., p. 472; Survey 1934, p. 650. Cf. April 10, supra. Cf. similar statements Apr. 20 23. Ibid., pp. 651 653. Cf. also Japan, Vol. I, pp. 224 229 f.)

April 21. Douglas Miller, United States Commercial Attach, re¬ported likelihood of German war in five to ten years. ("The Nazis are not satisfied with the existing map of Europe. They are at heart belligerent and aggressive. True, they desire nothing more than a period of peace for several years in which they can gradually rearm and discipline their people." Peace, p. 213.)

April 25. Foreign Minister Hirota said ". . . Japan had no intention whatever of seeking special privileges in China, of encroaching upon the territorial and administrative integrity of China, or of creating difficulties for the bona fide trade of other countries with China." ("Various foreign activities have tended to disturb peaceful conditions in China, and Japan is naturally very much interested in those peaceful conditions owing to her nearness to China. . . ." Ibid., p. 215.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 43

April 27. Thirteen American nations, including the United States, signed a nonaggression treaty at Buenos Aires. ("In the desire to contribute to the consolidation of peace, and to express their adherence to the efforts made by all civilized nations to promote the spirit of universal harmony; "To the end of condemning wars of aggression and territorial acquisitions that may be obtained by armed conquest, making them impossible and establishing their invalidity through the positive prohibitions of this treaty, and in order to replace them with pacific solutions based on lofty concepts of justice and equity; "Convinced that one of the most effective means of assuring the moral and material benefits which peace offers to the world, is the organization of a permanent system of conciliation for international disputes, to be applied immediately on the violation of the principles mentioned; . . ." State Release 1934, No. 239, pp. 234 f.)

April 29. The United States reaffirmed its position on its rights and interests involved in China. ("In the opinion of the American people and the American Government, no nation can, without the assent of the other nations concerned, rightfully endeavor to make conclusive its will in situations where there are involved the rights, the obligations and the legitimate interests of other sovereign states." Peace, p. 217. Cf. June 26 and Nov. 23, 1933, and Apr. 25, supra.)

April 30. Austrian Parliament approved the Dollfuss regime, a fascist constitution, and voted itself out of existence. (To set up a corporate state. Survey 1934, p. 465 n.)

May 1. Prince Starhemberg, leader of Austrian Heimwehr, joined the Austrian Cabinet. (Cabinet reconstruction of the Fatherland Front. Ibid., p. 464.)

May 5. The United States Attorney General, Homer Cummings, announced that the War debt installments must be paid in full to avoid Johnson Act penalties. (To clarify questions as to what nations were in default. State Release 1934, No. 240, pp. 259 267. Cf. Apr. 13, supra.) Secretary of State Hull spoke on dangers of the international situation. (Cf. Reports from Berlin supra, June 26, Nov. 23, 1933, and April 21, 1934. "It would be both a blunder and a crime for civilized peoples to fail much longer to take notice of present dangerous tendencies which negative every idea of friend¬liness and of the spirit of the good neighbor." Peace, p. 219.) Russian Polish nonaggression treaty renewed until 1945. ("Moved by the desire to found the development of relations between their countries on as firm a basis as possible, and . . . "Animated by the desire of contributing to the consolidation of general peace and of assuring, also, the peaceful evolution of relations between the states of Eastern Europe,

44 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

"Affirming that the conclusion of the pact of July 26, 1932, between the Republic of Poland and the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics has exercised a favorable influence on the development of their mutual relations and on the realization of the above mentioned objectives . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, pp. 392 f.) .

May 13. Saudi Arabia and Yemen concluded an armistice. (Yemen had sued for peace April 12; Saudi Arabia followed with swift military victories. Yemen accepted conditions in full. Survey 1934, pp. 317 f. Cf. Mar. 27, supra.)

May 16. Secretary of State Hull tried to convince Ambassador Hirashi Saito the. Japanese interests lay in peaceful policies. (". . . the more highly civilized nations had correspondingly greater responsibilities and duties, both from the standpoint of their own progress and well being and that of the world, that could not be dodged or evaded . . ." Peace, p. 221. )

May 17. League Council asked committee of three to study arms embargo for the Chaco dispute. (There was a strong body of opinion in favor of putting an end to the conflict by cutting off the supply of arms. Survey 1933, p. 432.)

May 18. President Roosevelt urged the Senate to advise ratification of Geneva convention for supervision of international trade in arms and munitions. ("The private and uncontrolled manufac¬ture of arms and munitions and the tragic therein has become a serious source of international discord and strife. It is not pos¬sible, however, effectively to control such an evil by the isolated action of any one country. The enlightened opinion of the world has long realized that this is a field in which international action is necessary. . . . The ratification of that convention by this Government, which has been too long delayed, would be a con¬crete indication of the willingness of the American people to make their contribution toward the suppression of abuses which may have disastrous results for the entire world if they, are permitted¬ to continue unchecked." State Release 1934, No. 242, p. 293. Cf. Jan. 10, 1933, supra.)

May 19. Army officers, established a dictatorship in Bulgaria. (By coup d'état. Survey 1934, p. 531.)

May 20. Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed treaty of friendship. ("Desirous of bringing to an end the state of war unfortunately existing between them, between their two Governments, and between their two peoples, and desirous of affording peace to the Islamic nation, of enhancing its dignity and of safeguarding its honor and its independence; "Considering the necessity for establishing relations between their two Governments and their two countries upon a firm treaty basis and to their common advantage and reciprocal interests; "Desirous of fixing the boundaries between their two countries, of establishing neighborly relations and bonds of Islamic friend¬ship between them and of reenforcing the structure of peace and tranquility between their two countries and their two peoples;

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 45

"Desirous of forming a common front in face of unforeseen events and a strong bulwark for the security of the Arab Peninsula, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 458.)

May 21. Salvador announced her recognition of Manchukuo. (". . . purely a matter of business, the outgrowth of El Salvador's acute need of new markets for her coffee." Survey 1934, p. 676.)

May 22. President Roosevelt asked legislation to increase amount of silver in monetary stocks. (". . . we should move forward as rapidly as conditions permit in broadening the metallic base of our monetary system and in stabilizing the purchasing and debt paying power of our money on a more equitable level . . . we should not neglect the value of an increased use of silver in improving our monetary system." State Release 1934, No. 243, p. 303.) Secretary Hull expressed the approval of himself and President Roosevelt of a bill for embargo of arms to Bolivia and Paraguay. ("The efforts which this Government has put forth in coopera¬tion with the Governments of other American republics and the similar efforts of the League of Nations to bring about an honorable peace between Bolivia and Paraguay have thus far failed to achieve the desired result. The Governments of Bolivia and Paraguay have refused to accept the carefully considered proposals for the restoration of peace which have been presented for their consideration. Their attitude has forced us to the con¬clusion that, in the existing circumstances, further efforts at conciliation unaccompanied by more direct measures, would be fruitless. The United States should be willing to join other nations in assuming moral leadership to the end that their citizens may no longer, for the sake of profits, supply the belligerent nations with arms and munitions to carry on their useless and sanguinary conflict." Ibid., p. 302. Cf. May 19, supra.)

May 24. Colombia and Peru signed the Leticia agreement. ("Con¬sidering, That both Republics, in harmony with the moral con¬science of humanity, assert as a fundamental duty of states the proscription of war, the settlement of their difficulties politically or juridically, and the prevention of the possibility of conflicts between them; "That this duty is the more agreeable for the states which compose the American community, among, which exist historical, social, and sentimental ties, which cannot be weakened by divergencies or events which must always be considered in a spirit of reciprocal understanding and good will; "That this duty of peace and cordiality may be better accom¬plished by applying the methods established by contemporary international law, for the juridical settlement of differences be¬tween states, and for the guarantee and development of human rights. "That the attitude which they now adopt should serve as a fraternal encouragement for the settlement of other international American conflicts . . ." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 57, pp. 8, 23.)

46 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

May 28. President Roosevelt embargoed arms to the Chaco dispu¬tants. ("I have found that the prohibition of the sale of arms and munitions of war in the United States to those countries now engaged in armed conflict in the Chaco may contribute to the reestablishment of peace between those countries, and . . . I have consulted with the government of other American Republics and have been assured of the cooperation of such Governments as I have deemed necessary as contemplated by the said joint resolutions." State Release 1934, No. 244, p. 328. Pur¬suant to H. J: Res. 347, 48 Stat. Pt. I, 811.)

May 29. United States treaty with Cuba replaced the Platt amend¬ment. ("Being animated by the desire to fortify the relations of friendship between the two countries and to modify, with this purpose, the relations established between them by the treaty of relations signed at Habana, May 22, 1903, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 56, p. 30.)

May 31. Bolivia asked League Council to act under art. 15. (Be¬cause the proposed arms embargo would be harder on her than on Paraguay for geographical reasons. Survey 1933, p. 434.)

June 1. Bolivia protested United States embargo on arms. (". . . the decision adopted by the American Government is in viola¬tion, in particular of the Treaty of Friendship, Navigation, and Commerce signed at La Paz on May 13, 1858, in effect between the two countries, which plainly provides that '. . . nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the importation or exportation of any articles, the produce or manufactures of the Republic of Bolivia or of the United States, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.' " State Release 1934, No. 246, p. 407. Cf. May 28, supra.)

June 9. Bolivia asked the Council to refer the Chaco dispute to the League Assembly. Survey 1933, p. 434.

June 11. Secretary of State Hull again spoke of fear of war ". . . armaments are being momentarily increased, and in practice the theory seems to be abandoned that nations, like individuals, should live not as potential enemies, but as neighbors and friends. . . ." Peace, p. 232. Cf. May 5, supra.)

June 12. United States Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act [Public, No. 316; 73d Cong., 2d sess.] passed. (". . . for the purpose of promoting international commerce . . . the restoration of the normal volume of international trade would constitute a major and a very necessary factor in stable, permanent prosperity¬–a prosperity based upon the increased employment of labor and capital." State Release 1934, No. 246, p. 391 [48 Stat., Pt. I; 943 945. )]

June 14. Germany announced a complete transfer moratorium on medium and long term debts, including the Dawes and Young Loans. ("When Germany was forced a year ago, with the passage of the above mentioned law [June 9, 1933, regarding payment of obligations to foreign countries], to introduce restrictions on the

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 47

transfer of foreign debts service, there was still a hope that the World Economic conference in London would take in hand the solution of the transfer problem, which is by no means limited to Germany. Nothing, however, was done; further, the conversa¬tions which were resumed last month with the representatives of Germany's private foreign creditors showed no fundamental or practical way of solving the transfer problem." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 244.)

June 16. Finland paid her war debt installment. Others defaulted. State Release 1934, No. 245, p. 353; No. 246; pp. 395 404.)

June 19. United States passed the Silver Purchase Act. [Public, No. 438, 73d Cong., 2d sess.; 48 Stat., Pt. I, 1178 1181.] (Survey 1934, p. 18. Cf. May 22, supra.) Semi Fascist constitution promulgated in Austria. (As a transitional measure. Ibid., p. 466.)

June 23. Polish Danzig harbor police agreement signed. (To settle the relation of the police to the state authorities and to the harbor board. Ibid., 1935, p. 218 n.) The United States became a member of the International Labor Organization. (By S. J. Res. 131, 73d Cong, 2d sess.) (". . . Whereas the United States early recognized the desira¬bility of international cooperation in matters pertaining to labor and took part in 1900 in establishing, and for many years there¬after supported, the International Association for Labor Legisla¬tion; and "Whereas the International Labor Organization has advanced the welfare of labor throughout the world through studies, recommendations, conferences, and conventions, concerning conditions of labor; and "Whereas other nations have joined the International Labor Organization without being members of the League of Nations; and "Whereas special provision has been made in the constitution of the International Labor Organization by which membership of the United States would not impose or be deemed to impose any obligation or agreement upon the United States to accept the proposals of that body as involving anything more than recom¬mendations for its consideration; . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, pp. 109 f.)

June 28. American embargo on the export of silver. (Survey 1934, p. 707. Cf. May 22, supra.)

June 29. The State Department asked President Roosevelt for restric¬tion on dispatch of arms and munitions to Cuba. (". . . with a view to enabling the Cuban Government to maintain peace and tranquility in that country. . . . There would not appear to be any legal means by which this Government can effectively carry out its treaty obligations with respect to the traffic in arms and munitions between the United States and Cuba, unless a proclamation is issued pursuant to the Joint Resolution of Con¬gress of January 31, 1922." State Release 1934, No. 248, p. 455.) Embargo proclaimed. (Ibid., p. 456.)

48 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

June 30. United States decided to stop release of German credit balances seized during the war. (Because Germany failed to meet her obligations more fully. Survey 1934, p. 701.) Chancellor Hitler staged a blood purge in Germany. (To, sweep away his political opponents and rivals. Ibid., pp. 324 f.)

July 20. British Italian Libyan Sudanese border agreement. (De¬limiting the frontier. Ibid., p. 698.)

July 21. Hungarian Yugoslav agreement. (To settle frontier inci¬dents. Ibid., p. 550.)

July 24. Agreement between Haiti and the United States. (Modify¬ing the agreement of Aug. 7, 1933, supra. Treaty Inf. 1934;. No. 59, p. 3.)

July 25: Nazi putsch in Vienna, Styria, and Carinthia; Chancellor Dollfuss killed. (Austrian decree of July 12 inflicted the death penalty for bomb outrage's, notified Nazis that past leniency was at an end, and forced their hand. Survey 1934, pp. 470 ff.)

July 30. Minister of Education Kurt von Schuschnigg took office as, the Chancellor of Austria. (President Miklas asked him to form. a Government. Ibid., p. 480. ) Stanley Baldwin, Lord President of the Council, declared that. Britain's frontier was on the Rhine. (". . . since the day of the air the old frontiers are gone." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 352.):

August 2. Hitler appointed President of the Reich. (von Hindenburg died. State Release 1934, No. 253, p. 86.)

August 6. Series of Polish Danzig agreements signed. (Relating to customs, import quotas, trade in foodstuffs and agricultural produce, and veterinary regulations. Survey 1935, Vol. 1, p. 223.)

August 15. United States Marines withdrawn from Haiti. (Under¬ agreement of Aug. 7, 1933. Ibid., No. 255, p. 103.)

August 19. Hitler's appointment as Chancellor and Fuehrer confirmed by plebiscite. (Ibid. 1934, p. 699. Cf. Aug. 2.) President Roosevelt ordered the nationalization of all silver stocks. (Under provisions of act of June 19, supra. Ibid., p. 18.) .

August 20. China protested the United States Silver Purchase Act. (". . . it would now appear that the interests of China and the ¬stability of the price of silver are menaced as much as they were by the previous situation of potential sellers." Doc. Int. Affairs ¬1934, pp. 229 f.; State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 259. Cf. June 19,. supra.)

August November. China staged an anti Communist campaign. (To¬ dislodge the "Red" Armies from the region south of the Yangtse ¬which for more than six years had been the Communist preserve.¬ Survey 1934, pp. 635, 695.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 49

September 10. Germany rejected an Eastern Locarno pact. ("It is, however, likewise logical that they cannot participate in any kind of new international systems of security so long as other powers feel justified in contesting German equality of rights with regard to armaments. A self respecting nation cannot be expected to enter into a special political association with other powers, if the latter simultaneously treat it as a second class nation with minor rights in a question which is inseparably connected with the object of the said association. Moreover, any system of security which is not firmly based upon equality of military rights must neces¬sarily in practice work to the disadvantage of the state against which the differentiation is exercised. . . . It means that Germany is being called upon to do something in anticipation which is in no wise justified and which would have to be refused even if the form of the pact did justice to the German point of view. . . . Germany's future relationship to the League of Nations cannot be discussed so long as her equality of rights is in any way disputed from other quarters. . . . Far from desiring to cast doubt upon the loyalty of the Governments concerned, the German Government cannot feel convinced that the obliga¬tions created by the new pact system would in every case prove sufficiently strong and would not come into conflict with given realities. . . . Finally it should not be left out of consideration whether the formation of such groups, so far as it actually in¬creases the security of the contracting States, might for this very reason, under certain circumstances, cause reactions on states standing outside the association; which would not serve the general interest in the preservation of world peace. . . . How could Germany undertake the obligation to intervene in conflicts of other states which cannot be foreseen and which do not concern her, or in which she is not interested? . . . Furthermore, Ger¬many could hardly expect any real advantages from the pact which would balance the dangers referred to. . . . The German Government cannot imagine it a practical reality that Germany, one day, should be defended in her own territory by Soviet Russian troops against an attack in the west or by French troops against an attack in the east. . . . They are inclined to believe, that, in general, the best results will be achieved by the method of bilateral agreements, because such agreements can always be adapted to the concrete circumstances, and therefore do not involve the risk of either remaining pure theories or of leading to complications. . . . " Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. I, pp. 254 259.)

September 10 27. Afghanistan and Ecuador were admitted to the League of Nations. (By invitation. Survey 1934, p. 220.)

September 12. Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a treaty of good understanding and cooperation. ("Having determined to further collaboration between the three countries and to facilitate a closer understanding between the Baltic states, "Being firmly resolved to assist in the maintenance and the guarantee of peace, and to coordinate their foreign policy in

50 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

accordance with the spirit of the principles of the Pact of the League of Nations, . . ." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 60, pp. 4, 15. Cf. Latvia, p. 82.)

September 13. Poland rejected further supervision of her minorities by international organizations until a general system of protec¬tion for all became effective. ("Pending the introduction of a general and uniform system for the protection of minorities, my government is compelled to refuse, as from today, all coopera¬tion with the international organisation in the matter of super¬vision of the application by Poland of the system of minority protection. . . . I need hardly say that the decision of the Polish government is in no sense directed against the interests of the minorities. Those interests are and will remain protected by the fundamental laws of Poland, which secure to minorities of language, race, and religion, free development and equality of treatment." Statement of Colonel Beck in the League Assembly. L. N. 0. J., Special Supplement, No. 125, p. 43.

September 18. Russia entered the League of Nations. (By invita¬tion. "The undersigned delegates to the Fifteenth Assembly of the League of Nations from the States hereinafter enumerated . . . Bearing in mind that the mission of maintaining and organizing peace, which is the fundamental task of the League of Nations, demands the cooperation of all the countries of the world. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, pp. 99, 101. )

September 19. Germany again claimed equality of rights in the matter of armaments. (". . . as a guarantee of peace and in order that we ourselves may be a real factor for peace in Europe." Ibid., p. 333.)

September 24. China again protested American silver policy. ("Since 1931 the rising of silver value in terms of foreign currency has involved severe deflation and economic losses to China and has dislocated China's balance of payments in part at least by hamper¬ing exports. Recently the stimulation of silver prices abroad to which exchange has not fully responded, has caused serious drain of silver creating great alarm. Silver exports of this year to date are over three times greater than any previous full year. Further material silver price increase would cause very serious injury to China, possibly severe panics. . . ." State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 261. Cf. June 19, supra.)

September 27. Poland rejected an Eastern Locarno pact. (They pre¬ferred bilateral pacts and disliked general agreements which might have serious consequences for Poland without adding to her security. Survey 1935, Vol. I, p. 71.) France and Britain repeated their declaration of Feb. 17, as to Austrian independence. (The time was not yet ripe for a more concrete guarantee of Austrian independence. Ibid. 1934, pp. 484 f.)

September 28. Assembly appointed conciliation subcommittee for Chaco dispute. (Ibid., p. 694.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 51

September 29. Italy and Ethiopia issued a joint communiqué refuting any intention of aggression against each other. (". . . not hav¬ing any motive to disturb the good and friendly relations existing between the two governments . . . with whom we are bound by the treaty of friendship of 1928." Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 27 f.)

October 2. China asked definite help from the United States because of the Silver Purchase Act. ("American cooperation . . . is particularly vital to China. In this connection it may be pointed out that the rise of silver discourages the export of commodities and thereby impairs China's purchasing power for imports." State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 262. Cf. June 19, supra.)

October 5. General strike in Spain and revolution in Madrid, Catalonia, and Asturias. (Called by Socialists, Communists, and Syndicalists. Survey 1934, p. 707.)

October 9. King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and Foreign Minister Louis Barthou of France were assassinated at Marseilles. (By a Croatian revolutionary. State Release 1934, No. 263, p. 245.)

October 19. Joint meeting of the foreign ministers of the Little Entente [Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Yugoslavia], and the Balkan Entente [Rumania, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey]. (To discuss the situa¬tion arising out of the murder of King Alexander of Yugoslavia. Survey 1934, pp. 529, 563. Cf. Oct. 9, supra.)

October 20. Belgium, France, Italy, Luxemburg, The Netherlands and Switzerland signed a gold bloc agreement. ("Convinced, as they affirmed at London July 3, 1933, that monetary stability is one of the essential conditions for the return to a normal economic association; "Considering that in assuring the stability of their monies they contribute to the restoration of world economy; "Confirming their desire to maintain the actual gold parity of their respective monies; "Recognizing that their common monetary policy implies a development of international exchange, a development which ought to encourage among them the similarity of monetary condi¬tions existing in their respective countries . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 235.)

November 22. Export of silver licensed by China. ("The National Government feels obliged actively to seek means of avoiding further hardships of silver fluctuations. It considers that China should not alone maintain the silver standard." [Unofficial Translation.] Survey 1934, pp. 630 f., and State Release 1934, No. 264, p. 261.) Yugoslavia appealed to the League Council on Hungarian responsibility for the death of Alexander I. ("The results of the inquiry undertaken as a result of the assassination of His Majesty King Alexander of Yugoslavia and of the French Foreign Minis¬ter, M. Louis Barthou, at Marseilles, have shown that this criminal act was organized and executed with the participation of those terrorist elements which had taken refuge in Hungary

52 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

and which have continued to enjoy the same connivance in that country as previously, and it was only thanks to this connivance that the odious Marseilles outrage could have been perpetrated. . . . "In view of the gravity of these facts, the Yugoslav Govern¬ment, being anxious to maintain peace and relying on the au¬thority of the League of Nations, finds itself obliged to bring before the Council, under Art. 11, para. 2, of the Covenant, this situation, which seriously compromises relations between Yugo¬slavia and Hungary and which threatens to disturb peace and good understanding between nations." Survey 1934, pp. 566 f.)

November 24. The League invited the United States to participate in the Bolivia Paraguay dispute, advisory committee, and the neutral supervisory commission. ("The Assembly attaches great importance to the cooperation of the United States." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 63, p. 12; State Release 1934, No. 271, p. 333.)

November 29. Iraq referred a border dispute with Persia to the League Council. (Under Art. 11. One point of dispute had to do with the position of the frontier along the waterway of the Shattu'l'Arab which was Iraq's sole means of direct access to the open sea. Survey 1934, p. 183.)

December 5. Franco Russian consultative pact signed. (". . . have been thus led to state the common resolution of the two governments to pursue to the conclusion the international acts envisaged [an Eastern Locarno pact]." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 184.) Yugoslavia began deporting Hungarians. ("In view of the. large amount of unemployment among Yugoslav citizens, the Hungarian attitude at Geneva, and the fact that Hungarians have withdrawn the permits of several hundred Yugoslavs living in Hungary, we decided not to renew these permits as they fell due." ["27,000 Hungarian citizens have been working and living in Yugoslavia on renewable short term permits for a long time."] Survey 1934, p. 574.) Fighting between Italian and Ethiopian troops at Walwal. (General firing began in a border clash. Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 136.) ,

December 6. Ethiopia protested Walwal attack to the League of Nations. (". . . the occupation, by armed troops under the command of Italian officers, of various portions of Ethiopian territory, and, in particular, the places known as Walwal and Wardair in the Ogaden province, as well as the obstacles which the said Italian forces have placed in the way of the survey of the Ogaden pasture lands, in Ethiopian territory, by the Anglo¬-Ethiopian Mixed Commission." Ibid, p. 136. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)

December 7. The United States refused officially to appoint a member to the League advisory committee but accepted membership on the neutrality supervisory Commission for the Chaco. ("In view of the powers, duties, responsibilities of the advisory com¬mittee as above briefly reviewed, my Government, in as much as it is not a member of the League of Nations, does not find it

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR 11 53

possible to collaborate in the work of this committee." Treaty Inf. 1934, No. 63, p. 13, and State Release 1934, No. 271, p. 334. "Taking into consideration that the Neutral Supervisory Com¬mission will be composed of representatives of American states meeting on American soil for the specific purpose of supervising and facilitating the execution of measures relating to the cessation of hostilities, which measures would have been previously agreed to by both parties to the dispute, will be happy to cooperate . . ." Ibid., p. 334.)

December 8. The League Council asked Britain, Italy, The Nether¬lands, and Sweden to police the Saar plebiscite. ("In view of the discussion which took place at its meeting of December 5 with reference to international action for the maintenance of order in the Saar territory during the plebiscite . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 60.) Yugoslavia ended deportations of Hungarians. Survey 1934, p. 575. Cf. Dec. 5, supra. Italy protested to Ethiopia, demanding apologies and compen¬sation. (Concerning Walwal clash. Ibid. 1935, Vol. II, p. 136. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)

December 9. Ethiopia invoked Art. 5 of the Italo Ethiopian treaty of friendship of Aug. 2, 1928. (According to which the two Govern¬ments had agreed to "submit to a procedure of conciliation and arbitration any question which [might] arise between them and which it [had] not been possible to settle by the usual diplomatic means, without having recourse to force of arms." Ibid., p. 137. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)

December 10. League Council appointed a committee to study the question of terrorism. ("Considering that the rules of inter¬national law concerning the repression of terrorist activity are not at present sufficiently precise to guarantee efficiently inter¬national cooperation in this matter . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 113.)

December 11. Italy made detailed demands for moral, financial, and strategic compensation for the Walwal incident. (Survey 1935, Vol. II, p. 136. Cf. Dec. 5, supra.)

December 14. Italy rejected arbitration in the Walwal incident. (The incident had occurred in such definite and clear circum¬stances there could be no doubt of its nature, hence they could not see how settlement of such an incident could be submitted to arbitration. Ibid., p. 137. Cf. Dec. 9, supra.) Ethiopia reported Walwal incident to the League of Nations. (Because of the gravity of the situation. Doc. Int. Affairs 1935, Vol. II, p. 11. Cf. Dec. 5 and 9, supra.)

December 15. Finland paid her war debts; all others defaulted. (State Release 1934, No. 272, pp. 354 372; No. 273, pp. 409 412.)

December 22. International troops arrived in the Saar. (Survey 1934, p. 614. Cf. Dec. 8, supra.)

54 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

December 27. Ambassador Grew warned the Japanese intended "to obtain trade control and eventually predominant political in¬fluence in China, the Philippines, the Straits Settlements, Siam and the Dutch East Indies, the Maritime Provinces and Vladivostok." ("With such dreams of empire cherished by many, and with an army and navy capable of taking the bit in their own teeth and running away with it regardless of the restraining influence of the saner heads of the Government in Tokyo (a risk which unquestionably exists and of which we have already had ample evidence in the Manchurian affair), we would be. repre¬hensibly somnolent if we were to trust to the security of treaty restraints or international comity to safeguard our own interests or, indeed, our own property . . . Such a war may be unthinkable, and so it is, but the spectre of it is always present and will be present for some time to come. It would be criminally short sighted to discard it from our calculations, and the best possible way to avoid it is to be adequately prepared, for preparedness is a cold fact which even the chauvinists, the military, the patriots and the ultra nationalists in Japan, for all their bluster concerning `provocative measures' in the United States, can grasp and understand." Peace, pp. 239, 244.)

December 29. Japanese Government gave notice of withdrawal from the provisions of the Washington naval treaty. ("In accordance with Art. XXIII of the treaty concerning the limitation of naval armament, signed at Washington on Feb. 6, 1922, the Government of Japan . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1934, p. 501. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 274.)


[ Continue to 1935 ]