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78th Congress, 2d Session
HOUSE DOCUMENT 541

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY
OF CERTAIN MAJOR INTERNATIONAL EVENTS LEADING UP TO AND DURING WORLD WAR II
WITH THE OSTENSIBLE REASONS ADVANCED FOR THEIR OCCURRENCE.

1931 - 1944

UNITED STATES STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1944


House Resolution No. 425

[Submitted by Mr. Jarman]
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
February 23, 1944.
Resolved, That the manuscript entitled "Chronology of Major International Events, With the Ostensible Reasons Advanced for Their Occurrence," prepared by the Legislative Reference Service of the Library of Congress, be printed as a House document.
Attest: SOUTH TRIMBLE, Clerk.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
U. S. Government Printing Office.
Washington 25, D.C. – Price 50 cents.


FOREWORD

The events leading up to the outbreak of the war and the subsequent American entry into it are of an importance and interest so great that it is difficult to exaggerate The chronicle of the inexorable march of aggression after 1931 and the failure of efforts to curb it illuminate the problems of a secure peace in the future as no mere formal argument or debate could ever do. On the other hand, events since December 7, 1941, presents picture of increasingly cooperative effort on the part of those governments which look toward a civilized world at the war's conclusion.

As a whole, the chronology was conceived as a working outline of the period and events covered It obviously cannot pretend to be complete or historically definitive. Such completeness and authoritativeness must await the opening of government archives in the indefinite future. Nor should it be considered in whole or in part to represent the official views of the United States Government. The inclusion of any item or statement cited to any source other than an official American publication does not imply endorsement or approval of such item or statement by the Government of the United States or by any official thereof.

As chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives, I am more than pleased that the Committee on Printing and the Congress as a whole has seen fit to approve the publication of this chronology. The work itself is a product of the Legislative Reference Service The chronology prior to December 7, 1941, was the work of Miss Marle Klooz and Miss Evelyn Wiley, under the general direction of Mr. Richard A Humphrey. Mr Humphrey, assisted by Miss Evelyn Wiley, prepared the subsequent chronology. The index was the work of Dr. A. O. Sarkissian. The assistance of Gen. Walter D. Smith and Capt Merlyn Cook, U. S. N., in the recommendation of military events for inclusion is gratefully acknowledged.

Sol Bloom
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs.

III

iv [Blank]

CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR INTERNATIONAL EVENTS FROM 1931 THROUGH 1943,
WITH OSTENSIBLE REASONS ADVANCED FOR THE OCCURRENCE THEREOF

This chronology has been divided into two parts: the first covers the period between September 1931 and December 1941; the second, the years of general war, 1942, 1943 and part of 1944. Events between the Japanese aggression in Manchuria (the first breach of the Kellogg-Briand Pact) and the attack on Pearl Harbor reveal the political, economic, diplomatic, and psychological pattern which formed the background of the Second World War. The period commencing with the United States' entry into the hostilities, and more particularly that which followed the establishment of the United Nations, is marked by a somewhat different pattern. Herein can be discerned the culmination of the forces of the preceding decade and, in addition, the joint efforts of the United Nations to win the war and to establish a just peace.

In general, only events or statements of policy of major international importance have been included in either section of this report. In addition to the obvious entries, some notations have been made of domestic developments within the United States and other nations because of their international implications. Certain items, although international in character, have been excluded on the ground that their long range relevance within the assumptions of this work was open to question. In same cases, items have been included which, in isolation, would seem to be of less than major importance. These have been noted, nevertheless, since even small pieces of the mosaic fre¬quently indicate forcibly the general trends of the period as a whole.

Where feasible, the ostensible reason advanced for a given occurrence has been included. [1] Whenever obtainable, official sources were used for documentation. It is clear, however, that reliance upon official sources becomes increasingly difficult with the approach of immediately contemporaneous events. In those cases, therefore, where official sources were unobtainable, entries have been made either without official explanation or accompanied by secondary citation. It should be pointed out that the military entries which become increasingly prominent in Part II, are a necessary exception to this technique of documentation.
In preparing; this chronology, the following tables were consulted: "Chronology of World Events, 1932 to 1941, with Special Reference to Hitler's Activities" by I. E. Ellis, August 23, 1941 (Legislative Refer¬ence Service report); "Chronology of World Events, 1931 to 1942," by A. D. Jackson, April 14, 1942 (Legislative Reference Service

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[1] The obvious fact should, perhaps, be noted that the official reason given is quite often not the "real" or "actual" motive for an action.

2 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

report); the chronologies in The Great Powers in World Politics by F. II. Simonds and Brooks Emeny, in Europe: Versailles to Warsaw by R. S. gain, in "Chronology, March 1938 to December 1941" in The Department of State Bulletin, December 27, 1941, and in the Survey of International Affairs 1931 1938, of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. In cases of discrepancies in dates, a not infrequent occurrence, reliance has been placed principally upon the Royal Institute work for the earlier periods and on The Department of State Bulletin for the later ones. A complete list of sources cited, together with the abbreviated, form in which they appear in the text, follows:

Belgian American Educational Foundation. The Belgian Campaign and the Surrender of the Belgian Army, May 10 28, 1940. New York, 1940. Cited: Belgian.
Belgium. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Belgium: The Official Account of What Happened 1939 1940. London, Evans Bros., Ltd., 1941 [?]. Cited, Belgian.
Finland. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Finland Reveals Her Secret Documents on Soviet Policy March 1940 June 1941. New York, Wilfred Funk, Inc., 1941. Cited: Finland.
Finland: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: The Finnish Blue Book, the developments of Finnish Soviet relations during the autumn of 1939 including the official documents and the peace treaty of March 12, 1940. New York, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1940.
Cited: Finnish.
Fleming., Denna Frank. The United States and World Organization 1920-33 New York, Columbia University Press, 1938. Cited: Fleming.
France. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The French Yellow Book, diplomatic doc¬uments concerning the events and negotiations which preceded the opening of hostilities between Germany on the one hand, and Poland, Great Britain, and France on the other. (1938 1939.) Published by the authority of the French Government. London, Hutchinson and Company, Ltd., 1940 [?]. Cited: French.
Germany. Foreign Office. Documents on the Events Preceding the Outbreak of the War. New York, German Library of Information, 1940. Cited: German.
Greece. Royal Greek Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Greek White Book, diplomatic documents relating to Italy's aggression against Greece. London, Hutchinson and Company, 1942. Cited: Greek.
Gooch, R. K. The Government of England. New York, D. Van Nostrand Com¬pany, Inc., 1937. Cited: Gooch.
Great Britain. Foreign Office. The British War Blue Book, miscellaneous No. 9 (1939), documents concerning German-Polish relations and the outbreak of, hostilities between Great Britain and Germany on September 3, 1939, presented by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to Parliament by Command of His Majesty. New York, Farrar and Rinehart, 1939. Cited: British.
Great Britain. Parliament. Official Reports, House of Lords, House of Commons. Cited: Commons, Lords.
Great Britain. Parliament. Papers by Command. Social Insurance and Allied Services, report by Sir William Beveridge. Cmd. 6404. London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1942.
Great Britain. Statutory Rules and Orders.
Hitler, Adolf. My New Order, edited by Raoul de Roussy de Sales. New York, Reynal and Witch 1941.
International Conciliation, No. 354 (November 1939), and No. 357 (February 1940). New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Cited: Conciliation.
Latvian Legation. Latvia in 1939 1942; background, Bolshevik and Nazi occupation, hopes for future. Washington, D. C., Press Bureau of the Latvian Legation, 1942. Cited: Latvia.
League of Nations. Report of the Commission of Enquiry [on Manchurian crisis], October 1, 1932. Appeal by the Chinese Government. Geneva, 1932.
League of Nations. Official Journal. Geneva, October 1933. Cited: L. N. 0. J.
Lee, Dwight E. Ten Years, the world on the way to war 1930 1940. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1942. Cited: Lee. The London Times.

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 3

The New York Times. Cited: Times.
Rice, Howard C. (compiler). France 1940 1942: a collection of documents and bibliography. Cambridge, Mass, 1942. Cited: Rice.
Royal Institute of International Affairs. The Bulletin of International News (published fortnightly), Vols. XIX XX (1942 1943). London. Cited: International News.
Royal Institute of International Affairs. Documents on International Affairs. London, Oxford University Press, 1932 1938. Cited: Doc. Int. Affairs.
Royal Institute of International Affairs. Norway and the War; September 1939-¬December 1940. London, Oxford University Press, 1941. Cited: Norway.
Royal Institute of International Affairs. Survey of International Affairs, by Arnold J. Toynbee, assisted by V. M. Boulter. London, Oxford University Press, 1932 1938. Cited: Survey.
Simonds, Frank H. and Emeny, Brooks. The Great Powers in World Politics, international relations and economic nationalism. New York, American Book Company, 1939. Cited: Simonds, Emeny.
United States. Congress. Summary of Past Policy, and of More Immediate Events, in Relation to the Pacific Area. Message from the President of the United States transmitting a summary of the past policy of this country in relation to the Pacific area and of the more immediate events leading up to this Japanese onslaught upon our forces and territory. House Document No. 458, 77th Congress, 1st Session. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1941.
United States. Congress. Development of United States Foreign Policy, addresses and messages of Franklin D. Roosevelt compiled from official sources, in¬tended to present the chronological development of the foreign policy of the United States from the announcement of the good neighbor policy in 1933, including the war declarations. Senate Document No. 188, 77th Congress, 2d Session. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1942. Cited: Messages.
United States. Congressional Record.
United States. Department of State. Bulletin. 1939 1943, nine volumes, Nos. 1 235. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1939 1943. Cited: Bulletin.
United States, Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. Japan: 1931 1941. Two volumes. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1943. Cited: Japan.
United States. Department of State. Peace and War: United States Foreign Policy 1931 1941. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1942. Cited: Peace.
United States. Department of State. Press Releases. September 19, 1931-¬June 24, 1939. Nos. 103 508. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1931 1939. Cited: Release.
United States. Department of State. Treaty Information Bulletin. September 30, 1931 June 30, 1939. Nos. 24 117. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1931 1939. Cited: Treaty Inf.
United States. Federal Register.
United States. Statutes at Large. Cited: Stat.


1931

September 18. A section of the South Manchurian railway north of Mukden dynamited. "According to the Chinese version, the Japanese attack on the Barracks (Peitaying} was entirely unprovoked and came as a complete surprise. On the night of September 18th, all the soldiers of the 7th Brigade, numbering about 10,000, were in the North Barracks. As instructions had been received . . . that special care was to be taken to avoid any clash with the Japanese troops in the tense state of feeling existing at the time, the sentries at the walls of the Barracks were only armed with dummy rifles. . ." League of Nations, Appeal by the Chinese Government: Report of the Commission of Enquiry, October 1, 1932, p. 69.

"An explosion undoubtedly occurred on or near the railroad between 10 and 10:30 p.m. on September 18th, but the damage, if any, to the railroad did not in fact prevent the punctual arrival of the south-bound train from Changchun, and was not in itself sufficient to justify military action. The military operations of the Japanese troops during this night, . . . cannot be regarded as measures of legitimate self-defence . . ." [Opinion of Com- mission of Enquiry.] Ibid., p. 71. , ". . . a detachment of Chinese troops destroyed the tracks. of the South Manchuria Railway in the vicinity of Mukden and attacked our railway guards at midnight on September 18; a clash between the Japanese and Chinese troops then took place." [Statement by the Japanese Government, ,Sept. 24, 1931.] Doc. Int. Affairs, 1932, p. 245.

September 19. Mukden and Changchun bombed and occupied by the Japanese. ("According to all information available to me here; I am driven to the conclusion that the forceful occupation of all strategic points in South Manchuria, including the taking over and operation of public utilities, banks, and in Mukden at least the functions of civil government, is an aggressive act by Japan apparently long planned and when decided upon most carefully and systematically put into effect. I find no evidence that these events were the result of accident nor were they the acts of minor and irresponsible officials." Telegram from U. S. Minister in China, Johnson, Sept. 22, 1931, Japan, vol. J, p. 5.) ". . . the Japanese troops, since the beginning of the present events, have been careful to act only within the limits necessary to ensure their own safety, the protection of the railway, and the safety of Japanese nationals . . . only a few troops are, as a precautionary measure, quartered in the town of Mukden and at Kirin, and a small number of soldiers have been placed at certain points. . . . The Japanese forces are being withdrawn to the fullest extent which is at present allowed by the maintenance of the safety of Japanese nationals and the protection of the railway." [Reply of the Japanese Government, Sept. 24, 1931.] Ibid., pp. 244-245.

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EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 5

September 21. England and India went off the gold standard. (Insubordination in the Atlantic fleet Sept. 15 over proposed naval pay cuts led to withdrawal of funds by foreigners; caused suspension of the export of gold, Sept. 20; on advice of the Bank of England. Survey 1931, p. 110; flight from the pound sterling. Ibid., p. 123.) China appealed to the League of Nations Council. (". . . beginning from ten o'clock of the night of September 18, regular troops of Japanese soldiers, without provocation of any kind, opened rifle and artillery fire upon Chinese soldiers at or near the city of Mukden, bombarded the arsenal and barracks of the Chinese soldiers, set fire to the ammunition depot, disarmed the Chinese troops in Changchun, Kwanchengtse, and other places, and later took military occupation of the, cities of Mukden and Antung and other places and of public buildings therein, and are now in such occupation. Lines of communication have also been seized by Japanese troops. . . . In view of the foregoing facts, the Republic of China, a member of the League of Nations, asserts that a situation has arisen which calls for action under the terms of Article 11 of the Covenant." [Appeal of the Chinese Government to the League Council, Sept. 21, 1931.] Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 242.)

September 22. Export of gold suspended in Denmark. (Denmark was peculiarly susceptible to a fall in sterling exchange because it had deliberately and systematically organized its national economic life to supply dairy products to Great Britain. Survey 1931, p. 121.)
Secretary of State Stimson told Japan Manchurian coup raised question of the Nine Power Treaty and the Kellogg Pact. (Japan, vol. I, pp. 5-8; Survey 1931, p.484. Cf. Peace, p. 156.) September 23. Secretary of State Stimson opposed a League Commission of Inquiry for the Manchurian incident. (Ambassador Katouji Debuchi had convinced him that any pressure would only weaken the civilians in the Japanese cabinet. Fleming, p. 398,)

Secretary of State Stimson expressed sympathy with the League effort in the Manchurian matter. (The League Council had sent minutes of its meeting and documents relating to the matter for the information of the United States in accordance with its resolution of September 22, 1931. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. ,247.) September 24. The United States sent notes to China and Japan about Manchurian incident, ("In view of the sincere desire of the people of this country that principles and methods of peace shall prevail in international relations, and of the existence of treaties, to several of which the United States is a party, the provisions of which are intended to regulate the adjustment of controversies between nations without resort to use of force, the American government feels warranted in expressing to the Chinese and the Japanese Governments its hope that they will cause their military forces to refrain from any further hostilities, will so dis-

6 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

pose respectively of their armed forces as to satisfy the requirements of international law and international agreements, and will refrain from activities which may prejudice the attainment by amicable methods of an adjustment of their differences." Japan, Vol. I, p. 9.) September 24. Secretary of State Stimson authorized Consul Prentiss Gilbert to sit with the League Council in a consultative capacity. (Fleming, p. 403) Bolivia abandoned gold standard, and Colombia prohibited export of gold. (Repercussion of British action, Sept. 21, supra. Survey 1931, p. 121.)

September 25. Argentina went off gold basis to a dollar basis. (See Sept. 24, supra.)

September 27. Norway and Sweden abandoned gold standard, and export of gold from Egypt prohibited. (See Sept. 24, supra; also ". . . since Great Britain stopped its gold export, extraordinary demands for gold and foreign gold values were made on the Bank of Sweden, and it was found necessary to take the above mentioned measures. The reasons for the decision are only the abnormal financial situation in the world. . . ." State Release 1931, No. 105, p. 268.)

September 29. Denmark went off gold standard. (". . . due to pressure from agriculturists and to the decision of Norway and Sweden. . . ." Ibid., p. 262.)

September 30. League Council passed resolution noting Japanese intention of withdrawal of its troops as rapidly as possible and disclaimer of territorial designs in Manchuria. (To put Japanese protestations on record. Japan, vol. I, p. 13.)

October 1. China asked Council members to send observers to Manchuria. (To collect information on evacuation and relevant circumstances. Survey 1931, p. 487.) October 5. China asked withdrawal of Japanese troops before the next Council meeting. (See Oct. 1, supra.)

October 7. Finland forbade purchase of foreign exchange except authorized by Bank of Finland. ("With a view to the maintenance of the gold standard and the stabilization of the mark." State Release 1931, No. 106, p. 286.)

October 9. The United States urged the League "to assert all pressure and authority within its competence toward regulating the action of China and Japan," and said it "acting independently through its diplomatic representatives will endeavor to reinforce what the League does. . . . (To "avoid any danger of embarrassing the League in the course to which it is now committed." Fleming, p. 401; Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 249; State Release 1931, No. 107, p. 296. Cf. Peace, p. 158.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 7

October 9. Japan rejected Chinese request of Oct. 5 and asked direct negotiation on fundamental points; protested anti-Japanese movement in China. (Boycott was not spontaneous but "instrument of national policy under direction of Nationalist Party, which, in view of peculiar political organization in China, is inseparable in function from government." Survey 1931, p, 488.) China asked immediate Council meeting. (In view of "serious information regarding further aggressive military operations upon the part of Japanese armed forces in Manchuria." Ibid., p. 488.) Latvia concentrated all foreign exchange transactions in the Bank of Latvia. (See Oct. 7, supra, ibid., p. 293.)

October 10. United. States made oral representations to Japan and China urging pacific policy and utmost restraint in keeping with League resolution of September 30. Concern was expressed over bombing of Chinchow by Japanese. Japan, vol. I, pp. 18-20. Survey, 1931, p. 489.

October 11. Secretary of State Stimson protested to Japanese. (He was disturbed that their commitments of the League resolution of Sept, 30 were not being carried out. See Oct. 10, supra., also their explanation of Chinchow bombing was quite inadequate. Fleming, p. 402.)

October 13. Finland abandoned the gold standard. (See Sept. 24, supra.)

October 15. Japan objected to invitation to American representative to attend Council meetings on the Manchurian matter. (On legal grounds: that only members of the League could sit with the Council on matters affecting their interests; that nonmembers could sit with the Council on matters in which they had a direct interest only under Art. 17; that the interest of the League as a whole in the preservation of peace was not an interest peculiar to any member, much less a non-member; that if the United States sat as a signatory to the Kellogg Pact, there were other signatories; that to extend such an invitation required a unanimous vote. Survey 1931, p. 491; Japan feared the political effect of a united front of opposition. Fleming, p. 403; Japan, vol. I, p.20.)

October 16. League Council invited the United States "to be associated with our efforts by sending a representative to sit at the Council table so as to be in a position to express an opinion as to how, either in view of the present situation or of its future development, effect can best be given to the provisions of the Pact." (The Manchurian question concerned the fulfillment of obligations of the Pact of Paris and "Foremost among the signatories . . . appear the United States." State Release 1931, No. 107, p. 297.) Consul Prentiss Gilbert attended as official United States representative to "participate in your [Council] discussions in so far as the Pact of Paris . . . is concerned." (Statement of American Consul at Geneva. Ibid., p. 298.)

8 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

October 17. Most of League Council members sent identic notes to China and Japan invoking the Kellogg Pact. Fleming, p. 404.)

October 19. Canada licensed export of gold. (Canadian dollar depreciated heavily on New York exchange. Survey 1931, p.234.)

October 20. The United States invoked the Kellogg Pact because of Japanese invasion of Manchuria. (After Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain had done so. State Release 1931, No. 108, pp. 352 f. See. Oct. 17, supra, "A threat of war, wherever it may arise, is of profound concern , to the whole world . . ." Peace, p. 159.)

October 24. League Council invoked Art. 10 of the Covenant, to apply to the Manchurian situation. (Because Japan would not accept a draft resolution setting a definite date for troop withdrawal and explain "the fundamental principles governing normal relations" which she wished to discuss with China previously. Survey 1931, pp. 495 f.)

November 4-6. Japanese battled for Nonni River Bridge. (It had been destroyed in a Chinese civil war and was important strategically and economically; Japanese protection had been sought by Japanese management during repairs. Fleming, p. 407.)

November 5. Secretary of State Stimson sent note to Japan urging, peaceful solution of Manchurian issue in spirit of Council resolutions. (America "noted with regret and concern" Japan's desire to settle broader matters before troop withdrawal. Fleming, p.406. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 35.)

November 11. Secretary. of State Stimson asked General Charles G. Dawes, American Ambassador to Britain, to go to Paris during League Council meeting. ("Inasmuch as this meeting will consider the present situation in Manchuria and questions may arise which will affect the interests or treaty obligations of the United States . . . he will be in a position to confer with the representatives of the other nations present in Paris in case such conference should seem desirable." State Release 1931, No. 111; p.452.)

November 12. Japanese sent ultimatum to General Ma Chan-shan to begin to withdraw from Tsitsihar by Nov. 15 and disperse his forces. (To bring about the overthrow of Ma in Heilungklang. Survey 1931, pp. 450-453.)

November 19. Japan occupied Tsitsihar. (As "purely defensive" action "aimed. at striking a decisive blow against the Ma Chan-shan army." Fleming, p. 409. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, pp. 44 f.)

November 21. Japan proposed the League send a commission of inquiry to Manchuria. (Japan thought it would give a clear view of the "realities" in Manchuria and China and hoped commission could be induced to approve the Japanese occupation. Fleming, p. 411.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 9

November 24. Japan assured America there was nothing in report of Japanese advance on Chinchow. ("The Foreign Secretary, the Secretary of War, and the Chief of Staff were all of them agreed there should be no hostile operations toward Chinchow and that military orders to that effect had been issued." [Statement by the Secretary of State.] State Release 1931, No. 113, p. 503.)

November 25. Secretary of State Stimson approved idea of neutral commission for Manchuria. (To support the Council action. Survey 1931, p. 505.) China appealed for establishment of neutral zone between Japanese and Chinese forces. (Japanese were advancing on Chinchow. Fleming, p. 409.)

November 26. Council notified China and Japan that Council members proposed to send observers to Chinchow area. (To establish a neutral zone, Ibid., p. 410, See Nov. 25, supra.)

November 27. Japan refused to accept the good offices of neutral observers to establish zone between the opposing armies. ("The policy which the Japanese Government had so far consistently pursued in the true interest of good relations between China and Japan had been not to resort, in disputes capable of direct settlement with China, to the interposition of third parties." Survey 1931, p. 457)

November 28. Japanese troops withdrew from Chinchow. (To await adjournment of the League Council. Fleming, p. 410.)

December 10. League Council voted commission of inquiry for Manchurian affair. ("Desiring, in view of the special circumstances of the case; to contribute towards a final and fundamental solution by the two governments of the questions at issue between them . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 259.) Secretary of State Stimson issued statement expressing gratification of the United States Government. Japan, vol. I, p. 60.

December 11. Britain passed the Statute of Westminster regularizing the legal position of the self-governing dominions. (Practical application of the report of the Imperial Conference of 1926 stating that the United Kingdom and the dominions "are autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations." 22 Geo. 5, C. 4.)
Fall of Japanese Cabinet. (Revival of movement for a super-party cabinet; incumbent cabinet fatally compromised by its inveterate liberalism and no longer able to justify itself in hostile public eye as buffer between League Council and Japanese high command. Survey 1931, p. 459.)

10 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

December 13. New Seiyukai Cabinet prohibited export of gold from Japan. (Vote of censure, on policy of Japanese Arm. Ibid., p.459.)
Japan suspended the gold standard. (Because of the weakness of her balance of payments, the depreciation of the pound sterling and the rupee, which seriously handicapped her in some of her most important overseas markets; and because of the direct injury to her trade through the Manchurian incident, and the fears of investors as to the political and economic future of the country . . . Ibid., p. 236.)

December 15. General Chiang Kai-shek resigned as President of Nanking Government. ("But realizing . . . that a successful safeguard against foreign invasion depends upon the cessation of civil trouble and the unification of the country, I decided temporarily to leave my duties. . . . I therefore request the Central Government to accept my resignation from my offices so as to enhance the realization of unification and accomplish the purpose of national salvation. . . ." [Circular telegram of Chiang, Kai-shek.] State Release 1931, No. 116, p. 585.)
Canton leaders planned to go to Nanking. (". . . so that a National Government might be established at an early date for the solution of the national crisis." [Statement from Shanghai.] Ibid., p. 586.)

December 21. "Large scale anti-bandit operations" begun by Japanese in Manchuria. (Ultimatum announced to force Chinese from Chinchow. Survey 1931, p. 460. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, p. 71.)

December 24. Britain, France, and America protested Japanese military moves. (No evidence of any offensive intent on part of Chinese there. Fleming, p. 421; Survey 1931, p.460. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, pp. 66, 69.)

December 28. New national government formed in China. (All members of the old Nanking government resigned Sept. 22. Survey 1931, p. 416.)


1932

January 3. Japanese occupied Chinchow and drove the ruler Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang's forces from Manchuria. (Japanese alleged danger of bandits. Fleming, p. 412.)

January 7. Secretary of State Stimson enunciated the doctrine of nonrecognition of. the legality of any situation resulting from action violative of the Kellogg Pact in identic notes to the Chinese and Japanese Governments. (". . . in view of the present situation and of its own rights and obligations therein, the American Government deems it to be its duty to notify both . . . that it can not admit the legality of any situation de facto nor does it intend to recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those governments, or agents thereof, which may impair the treaty rights of the United States or its citizens in China, including those which relate to the sovereignty, the independence, or the territorial and administrative integrity of the Republic of China, or to the international policy relative to China, commonly known as the open-door policy; and that it does not intend to recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928 . . ." State Release 1932, No. 119, p. 41. Cf. Peace, p. 160.)

January 9. Chancellor Heinrich Bruening declared Germany could no longer pay reparations. {The. report. of the Basle experts "pointed out Germany's actual incapacity to pay and the close connection between German reparation payments and the whole present situation. . . . It was clear that any attempt to uphold the system of political debt payments would bring disaster not only on Germany but on the whole world." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 6.) The British Government refused to endorse the principle of nonrecognition of unlawful conquest enunciated by Secretary Stimson or to address a similar note to Japan.
The British Foreign Office issued a statement saying:
"His Majesty's Government stand by the policy of the open door for international trade in Manchuria, which was guaranteed by the Nine-Power Treaty at Washington.
"Since the recent events in Manchuria, the Japanese representatives at the Council of the League of Nations at Geneva stated on the 13th October that Japan was the champion in Manchuria of the principle of equal opportunity and the open door for the economic activities of all nations. Further, on the 28th December, the Japanese Prime Minister stated that Japan would adhere to the Open Door policy, and would welcome participation and cooperation in Manchurian enterprise.

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12 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

"In view of these statements, his Majesty's Government have not considered it necessary to address any formal note to the Japanese Government on the lines of the American Government's note, but the Japanese Ambassador in London has been requested to obtain confirmation of these assurances from his Government." Survey 1932, p. 541.

January 14. League commission of inquiry appointed to investigate the Manchurian affair. (See Dec. 10, 1931, supra. Fleming, p. 435.)

January 20. Japanese consul general at Shanghai gave Chinese. mayor five demands. (Because of attack on five Japanese, Jan. 18, due to the anti-Japanese movement fostered by anti-Japanese organizations among the Chinese. The demands were for apology, arrest, and indemnity, control of boycott, and dissolution of such organizations. Survey 1932, p. 472. Cf. Japan, Vol. 1, pp. 186 f.)

. January 21. Nonaggression pact signed by Russia and Finland. (To provide for a conciliation commission. Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 28, p. 8) Japanese Admiral, Kiochi Shiozawa, threatened to "take the, necessary steps" unless the Chinese fulfilled the demands without delay. Cf. Jan. 20, supra. Survey 1932, p. 473.

January 27. Japanese consul general told mayor he must have a satisfactory reply by 6 p.m. the next day, (To stop anti-Japanese boycott associations, Cf. Jan. 20, supra. Ibid., p. 474.) Secretary of State Stimson telegraphed Ambassador Forbes at Tokyo to make representations to the Japanese Government regarding the situation at Shanghai. After reciting the events of the preceding week the instruction said: (paraphrase} "While this account may not be altogether complete or precise in all details, it is a sufficient indication that the action of Japanese subjects, both officials and private citizens, is contributing to the aggravation of what is already a serious situation at Shanghai, and that the consular and naval officers of the Japanese Government on the spot are seriously considering the use of force near to or in the International Settlement as an instrument of Japanese policy." Japan, Vol. I, p. 161;

January 28-29. Chinese accepted demands in full, (Cf. Jan. 20; supra.) British and American troops moved into allotted positions in defense sectors at 4 p.m. Japanese did not act, but notified mayor of Shanghai at l1:15 p.m. to evacuate Chinese troops from Chapei in a half hour. They bombed Chapei at 12:15 a.m. (British and Americans acted on decision of Shanghai municipal council. Japanese wished to make a night maneuver. Ibid., pp. 476-482; Fleming, pp. 414f. Cf. Japan, Vol. l, pp. 164, 167, 187.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 13

January 29. China invoked Articles 10 and 15 of the Covenant. ("A dispute between . . . China and Japan–arising from the aggression of the latter against "the territorial and administrative integrity and political independence of the former in violation of the provisions of the Covenant of the League of Nations, exists. This dispute has not been submitted to arbitration or to judicial settlement in accordance with any of the articles of the Covenant. The said dispute has now reached a state when it is likely to lead to an immediate rupture between China and Japan. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 265 f.; Survey 1932, pp. 561 f.) January 29-31. British and American consuls at Shanghai arranged truce between Japanese and Chinese. (To end hostilities and facilitate settlement of dispute. Ibid., pp. 483, 503 f.)

February 1. Japanese warships shelled Nanking. Ibid., p. 485. Cf. Japan, Vol. I, pp; 132 f.

February 2. British representative, J. H. Thomas, asked the League Council to suspend action while Britain, the United States, France, and Italy acted directly. Fleming, p. 417. Cf. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 266 f.; Survey 1932, p. 563. Cf. Peace, p. 161.)
League of Nations Limitation of Arms Conference opened. (Under Art. 8 of the Covenant. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 155 ff.)

February 5. Latvian-Russian nonaggression treaty signed. (Cf. Jan. 21, supra.; Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 30, p. 3.)

February 12, China referred her dispute with Japan to the League Assembly. (According to Art. 15, para. 9 of the Covenant: "at the request of either party, provided that such request be made within fourteen days after. the submission of the dispute to the Council." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 269.)
Secretary of State Stimson wanted Britain to invoke Nine-Power Treaty and Kellogg Pact and refuse to recognize as valid, any situation resulting from their violation. ("They do not concede that such a situation as has arisen in Shanghai is inevitable, provided the covenants of the Nine-Power Treaty and the Pact of Paris are faithfully observed by those who have covenanted to observe them, They are unwilling to consent that the enlightened policy which has heretofore marked the efforts of the nations of the earth towards China and towards each other should be repudiated or abandoned without their most earnest reprobation. They do not intend to forego their legitimate prerogative, in view of their treaty rights and obligations, to participate together with the other powers concerned in any negotiations whereby those rights and obligations and the policies which they represent may be affected. They take this occasion to express these views in order that there may be no misunderstanding. They avail themselves of the opportunity afforded by the terms of article seven of the Nine-Power Treaty to express frankly and without reserve their views upon these occurrences at Shanghai-and their

14 EVENTS LEAPING UP TO WORLD WAR II

belief that if the covenants and policies of the Nine-Power Treaty and the Pact of Paris be allowed to be repudiated or repealed, the loss to all the nations of the world will be immeasurable." Peace, p. 167 f.)

February 16. Members of the Council appealed to Japan as individuals. (To get Japan "to recognize the very special responsibility for forbearance and restraint which devolves upon it in the present conflict, . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 270. They called attention to the terms of Art. 10 "particularly as it appears to them to follow that no infringement of the territorial integrity and no change in the political independence of any member of the League, brought about in disregard of this article, ought to be recognized as valid and effectual by the members of the League of Nations. . . ." Ibid., p. 270.)

February 17. North Eastern Administrative Committee set up. (By Japanese. They erected a fictitious Manchukuo through pressure on prominent local Chinese notables amenable to Japanese dictation and control. Survey 1932, pp. 456 f.)

February 18. North Eastern Administrative Committee issued a "declaration of independence." ("In order to formulate a program under new policies. ., to reform the administrative system . . . to establish peace within and harmonious relations with the foreign countries promoting industry, agriculture, and commerce, thus bringing prosperity to the people. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 273 f.)

February 19. League Council referred the Sino-Japanese dispute to the Assembly. (Cf. Feb. 12, supra; Doc. Int. Affairs 1992, p. 283.)

February 23. Japan rejected individual and joint appeals to stop fighting: Secretary of State Stimson repeated doctrine on non-recognition in letter to Senator W. E. Borah. (In answer to query whether the Nine-Power Treaty had become "inapplicable, or ineffective or rightly in need of modification"; indirect appeal for support of other nations: "If a similar decision should be reached and a similar position taken by the other governments of the world, a caveat will be placed upon such action which, we believe, will effectively bar the legality hereafter of any title or right sought to be obtained by pressure or treaty violation, . . ." State Release 1932, No. 126, pp. 201-205; the British had refused to take part in a joint invocation of the Nine-Power Treaty on Feb. 11, 12, 13, and 15. Fleming, pp. 419 f. Cf. Peace, pp. 172 f.)

February 29. The United States consented to cooperate with an international conference at Shanghai. {For the restoration of peace. State Release 1932, No. 127 , p. 244.) Henry Pu-yi, Manchurian emperor of China, deposed in 1911, made provisional president of Manchukuo. (By resolution of an All-Manchuria convention at Mukden. Survey 1932, p. 457.)

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR 15

March 3. League Assembly met to consider the Sino-Japanese dispute. (Cf. Feb. 19, Supra.)

March 4, League Assembly passed resolution calling for cessation of hostilities and arrangements to regulate the withdrawal of the Japanese forces. (Through the initiative of Belgium, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia. Fleming, pp. 426 f. Britain and France were silent for fear of military sanctions at their expense and of economic sanctions without American support. Ibid. pp. 429-432. American official opinion opposed economic sanctions as ineffective without joint Anglo-American naval action. Ibid., p. 430; the powers preferred conciliation. Ibid., p. 432. Cf. Survey 1932, pp. 575-578. Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 284-286).

March 9. State of Manchukuo inaugurated at Changchun under regency of Pu-yi. (Cf. Feb. 18, supra.)

March 11. League Assembly passed resolution supporting the Stimson doctrine of non-recognition and appointing a committee of nineteen to report on the Sino-Japanese dispute. ("Considering that the principles governing international relations and the peaceful settlement of disputes between members of the League above referred to are in full harmony with the Pact of Paris, which is one of the corner-stones of the peace organization of the world, and under Art. 2 of which the High Contracting Parties agree that the settlement or solution of all disputes or conflicts, of whatever nature and whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be sought except by pacific means; . . . proclaims the binding nature of the principles and provisions referred to above and declares that it is incumbent upon the members of the League of Nations not to recognize any situation, treaty, or agreement, which may be brought about by means contrary to the Covenant of the League of Nations or to the Pact of Paris. . . . Considering that the whole of the dispute which forms the subject of the Chinese Government's request is referred to it [the Assembly] and that it is under an obligation to apply the procedure of conciliation provided for in para. 3 of Art. 15 of the Covenant and, if necessary, the procedure in regard, to recommendations provided for in para. 4 of the same article; decides to set up a committee of nineteen members . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 284-286.)
Secretary of State Stimson approved the League Assembly resolution. ("This action will go far toward developing into terms of international law the principles of order and justice which underlie those treaties, and the government of the United States has been glad to cooperate earnestly in this effort," State Release 1932, No. 128, p. 258.)

March 12. United States sent note to League on its resolution. ("to express . . . gratification at the action by the Assembly . . . that the nations of the, world are united on a policy not to recognize the validity of results attained in violation of the treaties in question . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 287. Japan, Vol. I, p. 213.)

16 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

April 22. Russian-Finnish conciliation treaty signed. (Provided for in nonaggression pact of Jan. 21, supra. Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 32, p. 7.) April 30. League Assembly adopted resolution on draft armistice and Japanese undertaking to withdraw troops. ("Considering . . . its resolution of March 4 and 11. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 287-289.)

May 4. Esthonian-Russian nonaggression treaty signed. (Cf. Jan. 21, supra. Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 32, p. 7.) May 5. Sino-Japanese armistice concluded. ("The Japanese and Chinese authorities having already ordered the cease fire, it is agreed that the cessation of hostilities is rendered definite. as from May 5. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 289 f.) May 9. Little Entente renewed its treaty of defensive alliance. (Survey 1932, p. 606.) May 15. Premier Tsuyoshi Inukai of Japan assassinated. (By members of the Young Officers of the Army and the Navy and the Farmers' Death-Band "who are opposed to weakness and corruption in government and to capitalism." Ibid., pp. 423-427; State Release 1932, No. 138; p. 499.) May 26. Cabinet of Admiral Makoto Saito went into office in Japan. (By imperial command. State Release 1932, No. 139, p. 519.) May 30. Bruening Government in Germany resigned. (Because of emergency decrees and land settlement policy. Survey 1932, p. 598.) May 31. Japanese troop withdrawal from Shanghai completed. (Under armistice of May 5. Ibid., p. 513.)

June 2. Fritz von Papen became Chancellor of Germany. (By appointment of President Paul von Hindenburg to succeed Bruening. Ibid., 1933, p. l41. Cf. May 30, supra.) June 6. Esthonian-Russian conciliation pact signed. (Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 33, p. 1.) June 15. Fighting renewed in the Chaco by Bolivia and Paraguay. (Border dispute. Survey 1933, p. 400.) June 18. Latvian-Russian conciliation pact signed. (Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 34, p. 8. Cf. Feb. 5, supra.)

. July 18, Turkey entered the League of Nations. Survey 1934, p. 216 f. July 21. American Commission of neutrals [United States, Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay] appealed to Bolivia and Paraguay to refrain from aggravating acts. (". . . which might aggravate exceedingly the actual situation and render nugatory the efforts being made for peace." State Release 1932; No. 147, pp. 62 ff.) EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 17

July 21 to August 20. British imperial economic conference at Ottawa. (To negotiate bilateral trade treaties granting imperial preference. Survey 1932, p. 589; Ibid., pp. 27 ff.)

July 22. Germany stated her claim to equality of status at the disarmament conference as basis of future collaboration. ("Equality of rights is the fundamental principle upon which the League of Nations and community of states in general is founded . . . discriminatory treatment would not be compatible with sentiments of national honor and international justice. It would also be contrary to Germany's contractual rights, which she could not renounce. . . . This essential condition is not yet understood, or not yet admitted, by all governments. . . . It must therefore urge that these doubts be eliminated by a recognition, without further delay, of the equality of all states in the matter of national security and the application of all the provisions of the convention. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 183.)

July 25. Polish-Russian non-aggression treaty signed. (Treaty Inf. 1932, No. 35, p. 5. Cf. Jan. 21, supra.)

July 26. Minister of Defense Kurt von Schleicher demanded equality of rights for Germany in broadcast. ("We can attain this security if we so organize our armed forces–by reorganization, not extension–that they would give at least a certain degree of security, and I wish, in connection with the German declaration at Geneva, to leave no doubt that we shall take this course if full security and equality of rights are further withheld from us. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p.185.)

July 30. Paraguay referred Chaco dispute to the League Council, (Survey 1932, p. 588; Ibid. 1933, p. 404.)

. August 3. Nineteen American states announced nonrecognition policy to be applied to the Chaco dispute. ("Respect for law is a tradition among the American nations, who are opposed to force and renounce it both for the solution of their controversies and as an instrument of national policy in their reciprocal relations. They have long been the proponents of the doctrine that the arrangement of all disputes and conflicts of whatever nature or origin that may arise between them can only be sought by peaceful means. . . ." Ibid., p. 407.)

August 5. American committee of neutrals sought armistice in Chaco dispute. (Because of "their constant desire to save Paraguay and Bolivia from the misfortune of a war. . . ." State Release 1932, No. 149, pp. 104 f.)

August 6. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru declared their neutrality in the Chaco dispute. (They wanted to deny the belligerents right to transport munitions across their territory Survey 1933, pp. 408 f.)

18 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

August 8. Secretary of State Stimson defined the attitude of the United States on neutrality and consultation. (Because he appreciated the fact that it was difficult for European nations to agree on better organization for their security when they were uncertain as to the attitude of the United States in any future breach of peace. Ibid., 1932, p. 271.)

August 13. Adolf Hitler, head of National Socialist party, refused to collaborate with or join the German government. (Because Hindenburg would not make him Chancellor. Ibid., p. 260; Ibid., 1933, pp. 141 f.) United States Ambassador Joseph C. Grew warned the United States Japan was creating public animosity against foreign nations. (To strengthen "the hand of the military in its Manchuria venture in the face of foreign opposition. . . . the Japanese military machine had been 'built for war', felt prepared for war, and would 'welcome war'; that it had never yet been beaten and possessed unlimited self-confidence." Peace, p. 6.)

August 25. Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, Count Yasuya Uchida, told Diet Japan intended to recognize Manchukuo. ("The Japanese Government are convinced that the recognition of this new State is only means of stabilizing conditions in Manchuria and of establishing a condition of permanent peace in the Far East. . . . the government consider the recognition of Manchukuo to be the only means of solving the Manchurian problem. . . . to extend to Manchukuo formal recognition and assist its Government to carry on their sound policy above referred to will be a notable step towards making Manchuria a happy and peaceful land for natives and foreigners alike on the basis of the realities of the situation. And it is plain, too, that such is the only way to secure a permanent solution of the Manchurian problem." .Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 303-308.)

August 29: Germany sent France a memo on her claim for equality of rights. (". . . to clarify, through diplomatic channels, the question which the German delegation has raised. . . . It is of opinion that a confidential discussion between the German and French Governments, in which the standpoints and wishes on either side are presented with complete frankness, is the best means for achieving an understanding. . . . In fact, matters today are such that the question of German equality of rights must no longer be held in abeyance. The need for its solution may be concluded from the course and present state of the Geneva disarmament negotiations and, further, from reasons connected with the general international situation. It will materially contribute to the elimination of the existing tension and to the appeasement of the political conditions, if the military discrimination against Germany, which the German people feel as a humiliation, and which at the same time prevents the establishment of a peaceful equilibrium in Europe, shall at last disappear." Ibid. 1932, pp. 185-188.)

19 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

August 31-September 1. Minister of Defense Kurt von Schleicher reiterated the necessity for reorganization of German forces. (If the victors refused to fulfill their promise to disarm. Survey 1932, p. 261) Peruvians took possession of Leticia. (Irredentism. Ibid., 1933, p. 440.)

September 3. Treaty of friendship between Haiti and, the United States signed. (". . . desirous of strengthening the bonds of amity which happily prevail between them and of giving a satisfactory solution to certain questions which have arisen in connection with the treaty of September 16, 1915 . . ." State Release 1932, No. 154, pp. 150-157.)

September 12. Germany boycotted the arms conference. (". . . the German Government could not take part in the further labors of the conference before the question of German's equality of rights had been satisfactorily cleared up. . . . Germany cannot be expected to take part in the negotiations with regard to the measures of disarmament to be laid down in the convention, until it is established that the solutions which may be found are also to apply to Germany. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 198.)

September 15. Japan formally recognized Manchukuo. ("Whereas . . . the fact that Manchukuo, in accordance with the free will of its inhabitants, has organized and established itself as an independent state; and . . . has declared its intention of abiding by all international engagements entered into by China in so far as they are applicable to Manchukuo; . . . for the purpose of establishing a perpetual relationship of good neighborhood between Japan and Manchukuo, each respecting the territorial rights of the other ,and also in order to secure the peace of the Far East. . . . Manchukuo shall confirm and respect) in so far as no agreement to the contrary shall be made between Japan and Manchukuo in the future, all rights and interests possessed by Japan or her subjects within the territory of Manchukuo by virtue of Sino-Japanese treaties, agreements, or other arrangements, or of Sino-Japanese contracts, private as well as public; . . . Japan and Manchukuo . . . agree to cooperate in the maintenance of their national security; it being understood that such Japanese forces as may be necessary for this purpose shall be stationed in Manchukuo." Ibid., pp. 312 f.)

September 23. League Council appointed a committee of three [Irish Free State, Spain, Guatemala] to watch the developments of the Chaco dispute and keep in touch with the American neutral commission to find a peaceful solution. (Fighting in the Chaco had assumed serious proportions; certain Council members thought that although the dispute was in South America, the Council was not absolved from doing all in its power to end it; others thought it would be best to leave the settlement in American hands: the committee of three was a compromise. Survey 1933, p. 412.)

20 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

September 27. Chancellor Franz von Papen spoke again on Germany's demand for equality. ("There is no question of German rearmament, but of German equality of status and the treatment of Germany at the disarmament conference on a footing of equality. . . . Our practical demands, which are wrongly suspected of amounting to rearmament, mean nothing more than that we–naturally within the framework of the convention–demand the same liberty to adjust our armaments to our social and national needs as is possessed by every other country. . . . We are striving for the equalization of armaments by means of a reduction of the general level. . . . Germany has never demanded rearmament up to the level of her neighbors, but disarmament throughout Europe and the whole world, and equality of treatment in the methods of disarmament and the assessment of the factors of armament. Equality of status and equality of treatment alone can bring about a relief in the tension between the nations; they are the only foundation of peace and of that moral disarmament of which so much is heard. What is at stake here is the fundamental rights of the nations, which no country may deny to another. . . . The pacification of Europe can never be attained if the attempt is made to degrade individual, states to countries of inferior status. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp, 205-209.)

October 1. Secretary of State Stimson restated the policy of the open door in China. ("The present crisis in Manchuria is not only a blow to the commercial interests of the United States but a threat to the authority of the great peace treaties which were conceived after the war by the nations of the world in a supreme effort to prevent the recurrence of such a disaster." Survey 1932, p. 557.)

October 2. Lytton report on Sino-Japanese dispute published by League of Nations. (State Release 1932, No. 158, p. 199. Cf. Jan. 14, supra.)

October 3. Iraq entered League of Nations. (Unanimous vote. Survey 1934, pp. 109 f.)

October 21-26. Third Balkan conference at Bucharest, (Discussed minorities question, Ibid. 1932, p. 592.)

November 4. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler refused to attempt to form a government on the President's terms. (The President refused to grant presidential powers to a party leader, Ibid., p. 286.)

November 8. Franklin D. Roosevelt elected President of the United States. (Quadrennial election. Ibid., p. 610; State Release 1933, No. 172, p. 18.)

November 10. Britain admitted German claim to equality of status. (". . . we recognize that the limitations which were imposed upon Germany were intended to be, and expressed to be, the precursor of the general limitation of armaments. . . . I [Sir John Simon] speak with authority of the Government when I say that the United Kingdom Government have throughout been ready and anxious to join the other Governments represented at Geneva,

EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II 21

including Germany, in. framing a disarmament convention which would fairly meet that claim. . . . It would not appear to be practical politics, and indeed I believe it would produce an exactly opposite result from what some people imagine, if any one at this time of day tried to prescribe a perpetual proscription for one great people, while for themselves and their neighbors they claimed merely a limited period. . . ." Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, pp. 209-217.)

November 17. von Papen cabinet resigned in Germany. (Because of his failure to obtain parliamentary support for a Government of national concentration under his leadership. Survey 1932, p. 286.)

November 23. President von Hindenburg again rejected Hitler's demand for the German Chancellorship. (On the explicit ground that the powers Hitler insisted on would transform the Chancellorship into a dictatorship. Ibid. 1933, p. 142.) Polish-Russian conciliation treaty signed. (Cf. July 25; supra. Ibid. 1932, p. 608.)
President Herbert Hoover repeated that there was no connection between debts owed the United States and reparations claims. ("After the war we refused to accept general reparations or any compensation in territory, economic privileges, or government indemnity. . . . Since we owe no obligation of any kind to others, no concession made in respect to a payment owed to us could either in whole or in part be set off or balanced against claims owed by us to any other creditor of our own country. On the contrary, every such concession would result in the inevitable transfer of a tax burden from the taxpayers of some other country to the taxpayers in our own, without the possibility of any compensating set-off." State Release 1932, No. 165, p. 336.)

November 29. Franco-Russian nonaggression and conciliation pacts signed. (Treaty Inf. 1933, No. 41, p. 4.)

December 2. Minister of Defense Kurt von Schleicher was entrusted with the task of forming a Government in Germany. (Because of the fall of the von Papen Government. Cf. Nov. 17, supra. Survey 1932, p. 286; Ibid. 1933, pp. 142 f.)

December 6. League Assembly began consideration of Lytton report. (Because Council seemed unable to reconcile the views of China and Japan. Fleming, pp. 442 f.)

December 7. Majority of the delegates in the Assembly who participated in the discussion of the Lytton Report held to the view that a resolution of censure against Japan was in order; the British, Australian, Canadian, and Italian delegates insisted that the path to direct negotiation was still open; subsequently on December 9 a Committee of Nineteen was appointed "to study the Report of the Commission." (L. N. O. J., Special Supplement No. 111, pp. 40-55 and 74-75.)

22 EVENTS LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

December 11. German claim to equality recognized by Britain, France, Italy. ("On the basis of this declaration Germany has signified its willingness to resume its place at the disarmament conference." Survey 1932, p. 288; Doc. Int. Affairs 1932, p. 233.)

December 14. Britain referred Persian oil dispute to the League Council. (Under Art. 15. Survey 1932, p. 607.)

December 15. Czechoslovakia, Finland, Britain, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania made war debt payments to the United States; Belgium, Esthonia, France, Hungary, Poland defaulted. Ibid., p. 602; Nov. 23 supra.; State Release 1932, No. 166, p. 368; No. 167 , pp. 390-394, No. 168, pp. 400-428.) American neutral commission proposed comprehensive plan for settlement of Chaco dispute. (To compromise conflicting demands. Survey 1933, p. 413.)
Paraguay rejected the plan immediately. ("Unsatisfactory and unjust" and calculated to threaten the security and integrity of their country. Ibid., p. 414.) Bolivia accepted it in principle. (Ibid., p. 414.)

December 30-31. Rifles and machine guns sent from Italy to Austria and Hungary. (For repairs. Ibid., p. 575.)

December 31. American neutral commission invited Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru to join mediation of Chaco dispute. (Ibid., 1932, p. 589; Ibid., 1933, p. 415; they felt they had come to the end of their own resources.)


[ Continue to 1933 ]